Sonography of the iliopsoas tendon and injection of the iliopsoas bursa for diagnosis and management of the painful snapping hip.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare sonographic evaluations of patients referred with suspected snapping of their iliopsoas tendon with the pain relief achieved from anesthetic injection of the iliopsoas bursa, and with the subsequent surgical outcome. This study also assessed the effectiveness of Kenalog injection into the iliopsoas bursa for long-term pain relief.
Dynamic and static sonography was performed in 40 patients with clinically diagnosed snapping hips. The iliopsoas bursa was injected with Bupivicaine and Lidocaine in the first 22 patients, and an additional 1 ml Kenalog-40 was added to this mixture in the last 18 patients. We compared the static and dynamic sonographic findings with change in the patients' level of pain at 2 days after anesthetic injection. The sonographic findings and response to anesthetic injection were also compared to the response to Kenalog injection and the results of any subsequent surgery.
Static sonography of the iliopsoas tendon was normal in 38 patients, and detected iliopsoas bursitis in one patient and iliopsoas tendinopathy in another. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon was observed using dynamic sonography in 9 of the 40 patients. Following anesthetic injection of the iliopsoas bursa, 29 patients had complete or partial pain relief, and 11 patients had no pain relief. Eight of the nine patients with a snapping iliopsoas tendon had complete or partial pain relief from the bursal injection. Twelve of the 29 patients with pain relief after anesthetic injection later had an arthroscopic iliopsoas tendon release, and all of these 12 patients had a good postoperative result. Of the 18 patients who had Kenalog-40 injected into the iliopsoas bursa and did not have iliopsoas surgery, 16 had sustained pain relief following the injection.
Patients with groin pain and a clinically suspected snapping iliopsoas tendon can benefit from injection into the iliopsoas bursa even if the snapping tendon is not visualized sonographically. The use of a corticosteroid may provide long-term pain relief, and pain relief after injection is a predictor of good outcome after surgical release of the iliopsoas tendon.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives- To investigate the distribution pattern of sonographically guided iliopsoas (IP) injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Methods- A single experienced operator completed 10 sonographically guided IP injections in 5 unembalmed cadaveric pelvic specimens (4 male and 1 female; ages 55-95 years; body mass indices, 15.5-27.5 kg/m(2)) using a previously described in-plane, lateral-to-medial approach short axis to the tendon. Each injection consisted of 7 mL of a 20% dilution of contrast material injected between the IP tendon and the acetabular rim using a 22-gauge, 87.5-mm (3½-in) needle. To facilitate interpretation of contrast patterns, 2 additional injections were performed on single hips: sonographically guided 14 mL contrast-latex IP injection and sonographically guided superficial IP "peritendinous" injection with 7 mL of contrast-latex. Immediately before and after each injection, fluoroscopic images were obtained with a fixed C-arm equipped with coned beam computed tomography. After each injection, radiographic images were evaluated by a board-certified, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist to determine injectate distribution. Specimens receiving contrast-latex injections were dissected 48 hours after injection to determine the anatomic location of the injectate. Results- Nine of 10 IP injections (90%) produced characteristic "U-shaped" flow patterns covering 50% to nearly 100% of the IP tendon circumference and resembling previously published IP bursograms. One injection was excluded because the majority of the latex was within the pectineus muscle, likely due to technical factors. Latex flowed an average of 5.3 cm (range, 0.3-7.9 cm) cephalad and 5.2 cm (range, 1.0-7.5 cm) caudad to the acetabular rim. The large-volume (14-mL) IP injection produced a similar flow pattern to the 7 mL injections, whereas the superficial peritendinous injection produced a contrast pattern consistent with intramuscular flow. Subsequent dissection confirmed bursal flow for the 14-mL injection, whereas the superficial peritendinous injection placed latex within the superficial portion of the IP muscle (ie, intramuscular). Conclusions- Sonographically guided IP injections using an in-plane, lateral-to-medial technique place injectate into the IP bursa between the IP tendon and the acetabular rim. Within the limits of this cadaveric investigation, this sonographically guided 7-mL IP "bursa" injection may provide a minimum of 50% circumferential IP tendon coverage and approximately 5 cm of cephalad and caudad flow. There does not appear to be a peritendinous space deep to the IP tendon at the acetabular rim that is both outside the bursa and amenable to sonographically guided injection. Injections into the superficial aspect of the IP using 7-mL volumes may not deliver injectate deep to the IP tendon and therefore may represent a fundamentally different injection.Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 03/2014; 33(3):405-14. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iliopsoas tenotomy is a treatment for snapping hip. Does this surgical procedure change the surrounding muscle and tendon anatomy? This study seeks to evaluate the changes in the MR appearance of the hip muscles and iliopsoas tendon in patients following arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomy. One hundred sixty-nine consecutive adults were evaluated after iliopsoas tenotomy at the lesser trochanter. Each MR exam was evaluated independently by three radiologists for muscle edema, atrophy (grade 0-4), compensatory hypertrophy, signal within the iliopsoas tendon (increased on T1 or T2 sequences), and iliopsoas tendon morphology (distorted or disrupted) above, at, and below the iliopectineal eminence. A finding was considered positive if reported by two or three of the radiologists. Twenty subjects met the inclusion criteria. Muscle edema was present in 15% (3/20) of subjects within the iliacus, psoas, and quadratus femoris. Atrophy was observed in the following muscles: iliacus 85% (17/20), psoas 75% (15/20), quadratus femoris 10% (2/20), rectus femoris 5% (1/20), vastus lateralis 5% (1/20), and gluteus maximus 25% (5/20). There was no compensatory hypertrophy. Ninety percent (18/20) had increased T1 and 10% (2/20) had increased T2 signal within the iliopsoas tendon. Thirty-five percent (7/20) of the iliopsoas tendons was disrupted and 85% (17/20) was distorted, most commonly below the iliopectineal eminence. The majority of postoperative symptomatic patients has atrophy of the iliacus and psoas muscles and distortion and disruption of the iliopsoas tendon and should be recognized as a normal imaging appearance following iliopsoas tendon release.HSS Journal 10/2013; 9(3):236-41.
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized as an important tool for diagnosis and therapeutic management of a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Advantages of US use in the young athlete include the ability to diagnose dynamic conditions that are occult with other modalities, provide additional diagnostic information, and aid in treatment. Uses of US in young patients include evaluation of acquired musculoskeletal conditions that manifest with symptoms and assessment of congenital variants that may manifest with pain or limitations in activity. Acquired conditions in the young athlete include tendon disorders, such as proximal tendinosis, and ligament disorders, such as anterior talofibular ligament or ulnar collateral ligament tears. While static images are frequently able to depict these disorders without difficulty, a dynamic examination that provides stress to the joint of interest may be able to uncover a ligament tear or insufficiency and concurrently provide the clinician with information regarding joint stability. Numerous congenital variants that occur throughout the musculoskeletal system can be associated with awkward sensations such as snapping, popping, and clunking and occasionally with pain. Pathologic processes associated with congenital variants in the upper extremities include slipping rib syndrome, atraumatic anterior subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint, and snapping triceps syndrome. Conditions that affect the lower extremities include internal and external snapping hip syndrome, snapping knee syndrome, and medial plica syndrome. The dynamic capability of US is ideal for diagnosis of many conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system of the young athlete, many of which would be difficult or impossible to identify with use of other imaging modalities. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 09/2014; 34(5):1145-1162. · 2.73 Impact Factor