Optineurin increases cell survival and translocates to the nucleus in a Rab8-dependent manner upon an apoptotic stimulus
ABSTRACT In glaucoma the retinal ganglion cells of the retina die through the induction of apoptosis leading to excavation of the optic nerve and blindness. Mutations in the optineurin (optic neuropathy inducing) protein were found associated with an adult form of glaucoma. To date, the role of optineurin in the neurodegeneration process that occurs during glaucoma is still unknown. We now report that in response to an apoptotic stimulus, optineurin changes subcellular localization and translocates from the Golgi to the nucleus. This translocation is dependent on the GTPase activity of Rab8, an interactor of optineurin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the overexpression of optineurin protects cells from H2O2-induced cell death and blocks cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. A mutated form of optineurin, E50K, identified in normal tension glaucoma patients loses its ability to translocate to the nucleus and when overexpressed compromises the mitochondrial membrane integrity resulting in cells that are less fit to survive under stress conditions. The correlation between optineurin function and cell survival will be key to begin to understand retinal ganglion cell biology and signaling and to design general "survival" strategies to treat a disease of such a complex etiology as glaucoma.
- SourceAvailable from: Jack T Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To what extent do postmitotic neurons regulate gene expression during development or after injury? We took advantage of our ability to highly purify retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to profile their pattern of gene expression at 13 ages from embryonic day 17 through postnatal day 21. We found that a large proportion of RGC genes are regulated dramatically throughout their postmitotic development, although the genes regulated through development in vivo generally are not regulated similarly by RGCs allowed to age in vitro. Interestingly, we found that genes regulated by developing RGCs are not generally correlated with genes regulated in RGCs stimulated to regenerate their axons. We unexpectedly found three genes associated with glaucoma, optineurin, cochlin, and CYP1B1 (cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1), previously thought to be primarily expressed in the trabecular meshwork, which are highly expressed by RGCs and regulated through their development. We also identified several other RGC genes that are encoded by loci linked to glaucoma. The expression of glaucoma-linked genes by RGCs suggests that, at least in some cases, RGCs may be directly involved in glaucoma pathogenesis rather than indirectly involved in response to increased intraocular pressure. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that CYP1B1 overexpression potentiates RGC survival.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2007; 27(32):8593-603. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4488-06.2007 · 6.75 Impact Factor
Article: Genetics of adult glaucoma.International ophthalmology clinics 01/2011; 51(3):37-51. DOI:10.1097/IIO.0b013e31821e52fe
- Glaucoma - Basic and Clinical Aspects, Edited by Shimon Rumelt, 04/2013: chapter 6: pages 103-127; InTech Open., ISBN: 980-953-307-706-7