In glaucoma the retinal ganglion cells of the retina die through the induction of apoptosis leading to excavation of the optic nerve and blindness. Mutations in the optineurin (optic neuropathy inducing) protein were found associated with an adult form of glaucoma. To date, the role of optineurin in the neurodegeneration process that occurs during glaucoma is still unknown. We now report that in response to an apoptotic stimulus, optineurin changes subcellular localization and translocates from the Golgi to the nucleus. This translocation is dependent on the GTPase activity of Rab8, an interactor of optineurin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the overexpression of optineurin protects cells from H2O2-induced cell death and blocks cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. A mutated form of optineurin, E50K, identified in normal tension glaucoma patients loses its ability to translocate to the nucleus and when overexpressed compromises the mitochondrial membrane integrity resulting in cells that are less fit to survive under stress conditions. The correlation between optineurin function and cell survival will be key to begin to understand retinal ganglion cell biology and signaling and to design general "survival" strategies to treat a disease of such a complex etiology as glaucoma.
"The turnover of endogenous OPTN involves mainly the ubiquitin-proteasome system , but when up-regulated or mutant, autophagy comes in to play . Although OPTN is localized to the Golgi complex, OPTN translocates from the Golgi to the nucleus in a Rab8 dependent manner on apoptotic stimulation, resulting in increases in its own transcription and thereby preventing cell death . In "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optineurin (OPTN) is a multifunctional protein involved in cellular morphogenesis, vesicle trafficking, maintenance of the Golgi complex, and transcription activation through its interactions with the Rab8, myosin 6 (MYO6), huntingtin. Recently, OPTN immunoreactivity has been reported in intranuclear inclusions in patients with neuronal intranuclear inclusions disease (NIID). Other studies have shown that the RNA-binding protein, fused in sarcoma (FUS), is a component of intranuclear inclusions in NIID. We aimed to investigate the relationship between OPTN, its binding protein MYO6 and FUS in this study. In control subjects, OPTN (C-terminal) (OPTN-C) and MYO6 immunoreactivity was mainly demonstrated in the cytoplasm of neurons. In NIID patients, both neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII) and glial intranuclear inclusions (GII) were immunopositive for MYO6 as well as OPTN-C. However, the intensity of OPTN-C immunostaining of the neuronal cytoplasm with and without NII was less than that of the control subjects. Double immunofluorescence staining for OPTN-C, ubiquitin (Ub), p62 and FUS revealed co-localization of these proteins within NII. Moreover, Ub positive inclusions were co-localized with MYO6. The percentage of co-localization of Ub with OPTN-C, FUS or MYO6 in NII was 100%, 52% and 92%, respectively. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions consisted of thin and thick filaments. Both filaments were immunopositive for Ub and OPTN-C. These findings suggest that OPTN plays a central role in the disease pathogenesis, and that OPTN may be a major component of NII.
American Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases 09/2014; 3(2):93-102.
"However, it is known that overexpression of OPTN in NIH3T3 cells protects cells from H2O2-induced cell death . The inhibitory effect of OPTN on TNFα-induced NF-κB activation is also well known , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optineurin gene, OPTN, is one of the causative genes of primary open-angle glaucoma. Although oligomerization of optineurin in cultured cells was previously observed by gel filtration analysis and blue native gel electrophoresis (BNE), little is known about the characteristics of optineurin oligomers. Here, we aimed to analyze the oligomeric state of optineurin and factors affecting oligomerization, such as environmental stimuli or mutations in OPTN. Using BNE or immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), we demonstrated that both endogenous and transfected optineurin exist as oligomers, rather than monomers, in NIH3T3 cells. We also applied an in situ proximity ligation assay to visualize the self-interaction of optineurin in fixed HeLaS3 cells and found that the optineurin oligomers were localized diffusely in the cytoplasm. Optineurin oligomers were usually detected as a single band of a size equal to that of the optineurin monomer upon SDS-PAGE, while an additional protein band of a larger size was observed when cells were treated with H2O2. We showed that larger protein complex is optineurin oligomers by immunoprecipitation and termed it covalent optineurin oligomers. In cells expressing OPTN bearing the most common glaucoma-associated mutation, E50K, covalent oligomers were formed even without H2O2 stimulation. Antioxidants inhibited the formation of E50K-induced covalent oligomers to various degrees. A series of truncated constructs of OPTN was used to reveal that covalent oligomers may be optineurin trimers and that the ubiquitin-binding domain is essential for formation of these trimers. Our results indicated that optineurin trimers may be the basic unit of these oligomers. The oligomeric state can be affected by many factors that induce covalent bonds, such as H2O2 or E50K, as demonstrated here; this provides novel insights into the pathogenicity of E50K. Furthermore, regulation of the oligomeric state should be studied in the future.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101206 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Though Optn has previously not been implicated in fat differentiation or associated processes, one clinical study identified mitochondrial abnormalities in patients with primary open angle glaucoma, a pathological condition linked to mutations in Optn gene . Another study has reported that a mutated form of Optn, E50K, identified in normal tension glaucoma patients, when overexpressed compromises the mitochondrial membrane potential in stress related conditions . These data raise the interesting possibility that Optn dependent mechanisms could be involved in maintaining mitochondria biology and function in BMP6 primed C2C12 cells that differentiate into mitochondria rich, heat generating brown adipocytes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a pivotal role in promoting energy expenditure by the virtue of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) that differentiates BAT from its energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) counterpart. The clinical implication of "classical" BAT (originates from Myf5 positive myoblastic lineage) or the "beige" fat (originates through trans-differentiation of WAT) activation in improving metabolic parameters is now becoming apparent. However, the inducers and endogenous molecular determinants that govern the lineage commitment and differentiation of classical BAT remain obscure. We report here that in the absence of any forced gene expression, stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) induces brown fat differentiation from skeletal muscle precursor cells of murine and human origins. Through a comprehensive transcriptional profiling approach, we have discovered that two days of BMP6 stimulation in C2C12 myoblast cells is sufficient to induce genes characteristic of brown preadipocytes. This developmental switch is modulated in part by newly identified regulators, Optineurin (Optn) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE) identified additional potential causal drivers of this BMP6 induced commitment switch. Subsequent analyses to decipher key pathway that facilitates terminal differentiation of these BMP6 primed cells identified a key role for Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R). Collectively these data highlight a therapeutically innovative role for BMP6 by providing a means to enhance the amount of myogenic lineage derived brown fat.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92608. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092608 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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