Action of topical thyroid hormone analogues on glucocorticoid-induced skin atrophy in mice.
ABSTRACT Previously we demonstrated the stimulation of collagen synthesis in triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC)-topically treated human and mice. In the present study, we have evaluated the dose response effect of thyroid hormone (TH) analogues and tretinoin on glucocorticoid-induced skin atrophy in a haired mouse model. For this investigation, we treated haired mice twice daily for 7 days with various topically administered doses of TRIAC, triiodothyronine-sodium salt (T(3)-Na), diiodothyroacetic acid (DIAC), 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA), and tretinoin with 0.2 mM betamethasone17-valerate (BM), or with the vehicle as a control group. We also investigated a combination of commercial betamethasone dipropionate (BD) 0.05% cream and various doses of TRIAC on mouse skin. TRIAC was able to reverse the skin atrophy by 25% in a daily dose of 1 nmol/cm(2) in the presence of 0.2 mM BM (p < 0.05). Neither other TH analogues nor TRIAC in lower and higher concentrations had a significant inhibitory effect on dermal atrophy (p > 0.05). A combination of 0.2 mM BM and 10 nmol/cm(2) TRIAC was able to prevent dermal atrophy by 18%. The addition of TRIAC to 0.05% BD cream in a final concentration of 0.1% was able partially to reverse the dermal atrophy by 15% (p < 0.05). TRIAC alone in a concentration of 1,000 nmol/cm(2) stimulated dermal proliferation by 34% (p < 0.05). Other TH analogues alone had no stimulatory effect on dermal proliferation. Tretinoin 0.8 mM was able to inhibit dermal atrophy by 20% (p < 0.05) and had an effect on dermal thickness of 85% (p < 0.05). However, severe side effects with edema, erythema, and scaling were commonly observed in all tretinoin-treated mouse skin, which could partly explain the increase in dermal thickness. In contrast, no skin side effects were observed after treatment with TRIAC. This study indicates that TRIAC may have a therapeutic effect on BM-induced dermal atrophy in mouse skin and a direct stimulatory effect on dermal proliferation when given alone.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated stimulation of epidermal proliferation and hair growth in triiodothyronine (T(3)) treated mice. To distinguish skin effects of directly applied T(3) from those of systemic hyperthyroidism, we treated CD-1 mice with either intraperitoneally (IP) or topically administered T(3). Relative to controls, mice receiving T(3) IP had 10% thinner epidermis (p < 0.01) and 48% fewer hairs (p < 0.001). By contrast, mice receiving T(3) topically had 78% thicker epidermis (p < 0.01) and 160% more hairs (p < 0.01). To gain insight into factors responsible for the diverging effects, we contrasted T(3) effect on proliferation of isolated keratinocyte cultures versus keratinocytes cocultured with dermal fibroblasts. For keratinocytes grown in the absence of fibroblasts, T(3) stimulated proliferation in a dose-dependent, biphasic pattern with the peak at 0.5 nM T(3) (84 +/- 30%, p < 0.05). Paradoxically, T(3) inhibited proliferation of keratinocytes cocultured with fibroblasts, the nadir at 0.1 nM T(3) (34% +/- 4%, p < 0.001). These studies are the first describing divergent effects of IP and topically administered thyroid hormone. The data suggest that while T(3) stimulated keratinocyte proliferation, T(3) also stimulated proliferation inhibitory factor(s) from skin fibroblasts. Insight into the interplay among the competing factors will be important in understanding thyroid hormone regulation of skin physiology.Thyroid 02/2003; 13(2):159-65. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although it was originally believed that thyroid hormones enter target cells by passive diffusion, it is now clear that cellular uptake is effected by carrier-mediated processes. Two stereospecific binding sites for each T4 and T3 have been detected in cell membranes and on intact cells from humans and other species. The apparent Michaelis-Menten values of the high-affinity, low-capacity binding sites for T4 and T3 are in the nanomolar range, whereas the apparent Michaelis- Menten values of the low-affinity, high-capacity binding sites are usually in the lower micromolar range. Cellular uptake of T4 and T3 by the high-affinity sites is energy, temperature, and often Na+ dependent and represents the translocation of thyroid hormone over the plasma membrane. Uptake by the low-affinity sites is not dependent on energy, temperature, and Na+ and represents binding of thyroid hormone to proteins associated with the plasma membrane. In rat erythrocytes and hepatocytes, T3 plasma membrane carriers have been tentatively identified as proteins with apparent molecular masses of 52 and 55 kDa. In different cells, such as rat erythrocytes, pituitary cells, astrocytes, and mouse neuroblastoma cells, uptake of T4 and T3 appears to be mediated largely by system L or T amino acid transporters. Efflux of T3 from different cell types is saturable, but saturable efflux of T4 has not yet been demonstrated. Saturable uptake of T4 and T3 in the brain occurs both via the blood-brain barrier and the choroid plexus-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thyroid hormone uptake in the intact rat and human liver is ATP dependent and rate limiting for subsequent iodothyronine metabolism. In starvation and nonthyroidal illness in man, T4 uptake in the liver is decreased, resulting in lowered plasma T3 production. Inhibition of liver T4 uptake in these conditions is explained by liver ATP depletion and increased concentrations of circulating inhibitors, such as 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, indoxyl sulfate, nonesterified fatty acids, and bilirubin. Recently, several organic anion transporters and L type amino acid transporters have been shown to facilitate plasma membrane transport of thyroid hormone. Future research should be directed to elucidate which of these and possible other transporters are of physiological significance, and how they are regulated at the molecular level.Endocrine Reviews 09/2001; 22(4):451-76. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence or absence of types I, II and III iodothyronine monodeiodinase enzymes (MDI, MDII and MDIII) and their levels of activity in the skin of goats, which were orally dosed for 60 days with 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.5, or 35 mg(-1)kg liveweight day(-1)of the anti-thyroid, enzyme-inhibiting drug, propylthiouracil (PTU), were determined. Contrary to our earlier report that PTU did not influence skin MDII activity, the currect more thorough investigation (in terms of numbers of observations and the efficiency of the enzyme extraction procedure) indicated that doses of 1.1.to 17.5 mg kg(-1)liveweight induced a 2 to 3 fold increase (P = 0.01) in MDII activity. However, in three of the four goats treated with 35 mg kg(-1)group, activity was similar to that of control animals. There were no significant differences between treatments in MDIII activity but there was a trend towards lower levels of activity in the goats dosed with 17.5 and 35 mg kg(-1). It is concluded that there is significant MDII and MDIII activity in the skin of goats and that although there is none of the PTU -sensitive MDI enzyme, synthesis of T3 within the skin could nevertheless be modified through increases in MDII activity induced by lower T4 concentrations in the circulation caused by PTU. Changes in pattern of fibre moult induced by treatment with low doses of MD-inhibiting drugs may therefore be achieved through this effect. Since MDII and MDIII enzyme activity may be reduced by high doses of PTU, prolonged treatment with high doses of PTU may have adverse effects on skin tissue.Research in Veterinary Science 05/2000; 68(2):119-23. · 1.77 Impact Factor