Atmospheric chemistry of N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamidoethanol, C4F9SO2N(CH3)CH2CH2OH: kinetics and mechanism of reaction with OH.
ABSTRACT Relative rate methods were used to measure the gas-phase reaction of N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamidoethanol (NMeFBSE) with OH radicals, giving k(OH + NMeFBSE) = (5.8 +/- 0.8) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) in 750 Torr of air diluent at 296 K. The atmospheric lifetime of NMeFBSE is determined by reaction with OH radicals and is approximately 2 days. Degradation products were identified by in situ FTIR spectroscopy and offline GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The primary carbonyl product C4F9SO2N(CH3)CH2CHO, N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamide (C4F9SO2NH(CH3)), perfluorobutanoic acid (C3F7C(O)OH), perfluoropropanoic acid (C2F5C(O)OH), trifluoroacetic acid (CF3C(O)OH), carbonyl fluoride (COF2), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (C4F9SO3H) were identified as products. A mechanism involving the addition of OH to the sulfone double bond was proposed to explain the production of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid and perfluorinated carboxylic acids in yields of 1 and 10%, respectively. The gas-phase N-dealkylation product, N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamide (NMeFBSA), has an atmospheric lifetime (>20 days) which is much longer than that of the parent compound, NMeFBSE. Accordingly,the production of NMeFBSA exposes a mechanism by which NMeFBSE may contribute to the burden of perfluorinated contamination in remote locations despite its relatively short atmospheric lifetime. Using the atmospheric fate of NMeFBSE as a guide, it appears that anthropogenic production of N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (NMeFOSE) contributes to the ubiquity of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and carboxylate compounds in the environment.
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorobutyrate (PFBA) has been detected in precipitation, surface waters, water treatment effluent, and in public and private wells in Minnesota at up to low microg/l concentrations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of PFBA in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans to provide a rational basis for dose selection in toxicological studies and to aid in human-health-risk assessment. Studies included (1) rats--iv and oral; (2) mice--oral; (3) monkeys--iv; and (4) humans--occupationally exposed volunteers. PFBA was determined in serum (all species), liver (rats and mice), urine (rats, mice, and monkeys), and feces (rats and mice). In addition, we characterized serum PFBA concentrations in 177 individuals with potential exposure to PFBA through drinking water. Mean terminal serum PFBA elimination half-lives for males (M) and females (F), respectively, in h were (1) for rats given 30 mg/kg, 9.22 and 1.76 (oral), and 6.38 and 1.03 (iv); (2) for mice given oral doses of 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg ammonium PFBA, 13.34 and 2.87 at 10 mg/kg, 16.25 and 3.08 at 30 mg/kg; and 5.22 and 2.79 at 100 mg/kg; (3) for monkeys given 10 mg/kg iv, 40.32 and 41.04; and (4) for humans, 72.16 and 87.00 (74.63 combined). Volume of distribution estimates indicated primarily extracellular distribution. Among individuals with plausible exposure via drinking water, 96% of serum PFBA concentrations were < 2 ng/ml (maximum 6 ng/ml). These findings demonstrate that PFBA is eliminated efficiently from serum with a low potential for accumulation from repeated exposure.Toxicological Sciences 07/2008; 104(1):40-53. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfn057 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Levels of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (nPFASs) in air and snow collected from Ny-Ålesund were measured and their air-snow exchange was determined to investigate whether they could re-volatilize into the atmosphere driven by means of air-snow exchange. The total concentration of 12 neutral PFASs ranged from 6.7 to 39 pg m(-3) in air and from 330 to 690 pg L(-1) in snow. A significant log-linear relationship was observed between the gas/particle partition coefficient and vapor pressure of the neutral PFASs. For fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOHs) and fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), the air-snow exchange fluxes were positive, indicating net evaporative from snow into air, while net deposition into snow was observed for perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (Me/EtFOSEs) in winter and spring of 2012. The air-snow exchange was snow-phase controlled for FTOHs and FTAs, and controlled by the air-phase for FOSEs. Air-snow exchange may significantly interfere with atmospheric concentrations of neutral PFASs in the Arctic.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5. DOI:10.1038/srep08912 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The widespread detection of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives in wildlife and humans, and their entry into the immature brain, raise increasing concern about whether these agents might be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) in undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, a neuronotypic line used to characterize neurotoxicity. We assessed inhibition of DNA synthesis, deficits in cell numbers and growth, oxidative stress, reduced cell viability, and shifts in differentiation toward or away from the dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter phenotypes. In general, the rank order of adverse effects was PFOSA > PFOS > PFBS approximately PFOA. However, superimposed on this scheme, the various agents differed in their underlying mechanisms and specific outcomes. Notably, PFOS promoted differentiation into the ACh phenotype at the expense of the DA phenotype, PFBS suppressed differentiation of both phenotypes, PFOSA enhanced differentiation of both, and PFOA had little or no effect on phenotypic specification. These findings indicate that all perfluorinated chemicals are not the same in their impact on neurodevelopment and that it is unlikely that there is one simple, shared mechanism by which they all produce their effects. Our results reinforce the potential for in vitro models to aid in the rapid and cost-effective screening for comparative effects among different chemicals in the same class and in relation to known developmental neurotoxicants.Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2008; 116(6):716-22. DOI:10.1289/ehp.11253 · 7.03 Impact Factor