Calculation and uses of mean sediment quality guideline quotients: a critical review. Environmental Science and Technology
ABSTRACT Fine-grained sediments contaminated with complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemical contaminants can be toxic in laboratory tests and/or cause adverse impacts to resident benthic communities. Effects-based, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) have been developed over the past 20 years to aid in the interpretation of the relationships between chemical contamination and measures of adverse biological effects. Mean sediment quality guideline quotients (mSQGQ) can be calculated by dividing the concentrations of chemicals in sediments by their respective SQGs and calculating the mean of the quotients for the individual chemicals. The resulting index provides a method of accounting for both the presence and the concentrations of multiple chemicals in sediments relative to their effects-based guidelines. Analyses of considerable amounts of data demonstrated that both the incidence and magnitude of toxicity in laboratory tests and the incidence of impairment to benthic communities increases incrementally with increasing mSQGQs. Such concentration/response relationships provide a basis for estimating toxicological risks to sediment-dwelling organisms associated with exposure to contaminated sediments with a known degree of accuracy. This sediment quality assessment tool has been used in numerous surveys and studies since 1994. Nevertheless, mean SQGQs have some important limitations and underlying assumptions that should be understood by sediment quality assessors. This paper provides an overview of the derivation methods and some of the principal advantages, assumptions, and limitations in the use of this sediment assessmenttool. Ideally, mean SQGQs should be included with other measures including results of toxicity tests and benthic community surveys to provide a weight of evidence when assessing the relative quality of contaminated sediments.
- SourceAvailable from: E E Manuel Nicolaus
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- "Looking at specific sites in more detail (Table 6), it can be seen that all 45 sites observed at least one determinant above 0.2 in their last sample year, indicating a decrease in benthic invertebrate richness. Further assessments on the biodiversity of UK estuaries effected by high levels of contaminants need to be carried out to see if similar biodiversity reductions as mentioned by Long et al. (2006) and Rygg (1985) would also apply to UK estuaries. This baseline study gave a good indication of the current contaminant levels in UK inshore areas highlighting that re-suspension of contaminants are still a threat to the marine environment. "
ABSTRACT: The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quality standards including ERL, ERM and EAC, all of which have been established internationally. Out of a total of 38,031 individual samples analysed, 42.6% and 7.7% exceeded the ERL/EAC and ERM values, respectively. The highest Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) for metals, PAHs and PCBs were observed for copper, fluorene and CB118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, the highest concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were observed in 2011 in the Lower Medway indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. This study suggests that re-suspension of contaminants banned over 20years ago is still an ongoing issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.Marine Pollution Bulletin 03/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.03.012 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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- "Individual sediment contaminants were highly correlated with one another, so we derived a single measure of toxicity by calculating a mean sediment quality guideline quotient (mSQGQ). This quotient was obtained by scaling contaminant concentrations against their guideline values and high sediment quality guidelines (Simpson et al., 2013), then summing scaled concentrations at each site (Long et al., 2006). These ANZECC/ARMCANZ sediment quality guideline values are comparable to standards by other regulatory agencies (CCME, 2002; EUWFD, 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Ecosystems modified by human activities are generally predicted to be biologically impoverished. However, much pollution impact theory stems from laboratory or small-scale field studies, and few studies replicate at the level of estuary. Furthermore, assessments are often based on sediment contamination and infauna, and impacts to epibiota (sessile invertebrates and algae) are seldom considered. We surveyed epibiota in six estuaries in south-east Australia. Half the estuaries were relatively pristine, and half were subject to internationally high levels of contamination, urbanisation, and industrialisation. Contrary to predictions, epibiota in modified estuaries had greater coverage and were similarly diverse as those in unmodified estuaries. Change in epibiota community structure was linearly correlated with sediment-bound copper, and the tubeworm Hydroides elegans showed a strong positive correlation with sediment metals. Stressors such as metal contamination can reduce biodiversity and productivity, but others such as nutrient enrichment and resource provision may obscure signals of impact.Environmental Pollution 01/2015; 196:12–20. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.017 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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- "The analytical performance of the entire procedure (i.e., limit of detection, precision, and accuracy ) was evaluated statistically. From the perspective of an environmental monitoring program, involving the element trace metals, sediment quality assessment using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) is very important in the SANR area, and several indices, including contaminant factors (CFs), pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factors (EFs), and geoaccumulation index (I geo ) (MacDonald et al. 2000; Farkas et al. 2007), presumably designed to protect the aquatic biota from the deleterious effects associated with sediment-bound contaminants, to rank chemicals of concern for further investigation and/or to prioritize an intermediate intervention to ameliorate the contaminated areas, have been used (Angula 1996; Long et al. 2005). Our investigations have focused on the assessment of (1) spatial and temporal trends of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn load in the SANR superficial sediments, and (2) environmental risks of the actual heavy metal loads in the study area Fig. 1 Map showing detail for sampling sites in the Segara "
ABSTRACT: The concentrations of eight elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn) in surface sediments from Segara Anakan Nature Reserve (SARN), Indonesia, were determined using inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy following microwave-assisted acid digestion. In general, the heavy metal concentrations of the sediments were found to decrease in the sequence Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > V > Cu > Cr > Ni. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using a pollution status index contamination factor, pollution load index, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factor as well as by comparing the measured values with two sediment quality guidelines, i.e., threshold effect level and probable effect level. The evaluation showed that in the refinery site stations, Cr, Ni, and Zn concentrations found in the SANR sediments may cause the adverse effect to occur over a wider range of organisms and can contribute to a more serious harmful effect. Graphical Abstract ᅟEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment 01/2015; 187(1):4079. DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-4079-9 · 1.68 Impact Factor