Racial and Ethnic Differences in Secular Trends for Childhood BMI, Weight, and Height*

Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 03/2006; 14(2):301-8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2006.39
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of childhood overweight in the United States has markedly increased over the last 30 years. We examined differences in the secular trends for BMI, weight, and height among white, black, and Mexican-American children.
Analyses were based on nationally representative data collected from 2 to 17 year olds in four examinations (1971-1974 through 1999-2002).
Overall, black children experienced much larger secular increases in BMI, weight, and height than did white children. For example, over the 30-year period, the prevalence of overweight increased approximately 3-fold (4% to 13%) among 6- to 11-year-old white children but 5-fold (4% to 20%) among black children. In most sex-age groups, Mexican-American children experienced increases in BMI and overweight that were between those experienced by blacks and whites. Race/ethnicity differences were less marked among 2 to 5 year olds, and in this age group, white children experienced the largest increase in overweight (from 4% to 9%). In 1999-2002, the prevalence of extreme BMI levels (> or =99th percentile) reached 6% to 7% among black girls and Mexican-American boys.
Because of the strong tracking of childhood BMI levels into adulthood, it is likely that the secular increases in childhood overweight will greatly increase the burden of adult disease. The further development of obesity interventions in different racial/ethnic groups should be emphasized.

  • Source
    • "Thus, secular changes were prominent in the 20 th century (especially after World War II) when they were expressed as a steady increase in mean height and weight of European and US populations (van Wieringen 1986). Most reports have focused on generation changes in height and body mass (Freedman et al. 2006, Malina et al. 2010, Kryst et al. 2012, Sun et al. 2012). Nevertheless , and according to Hermanussen et al. (2010), the so-called secular trend in human growth is not a consistent and homogeneous event that takes place uniformly affecting height, weight, body shape, various circumferences, and other anthropometric characters. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: to analyze the secular changes in body size and composition of two cohorts of children from La Plata City, Argentina, with a 35-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: Cohort 1 (C1) was measured in 1969–1970 and included 1772 children (889 boys, 883 girls), and Cohort 2 (C2), measured in 2004–2005, included 1059 children (542 boys, 517 girls). Both cohorts were obtained from matching geographical areas and comprised children from 4 to 12 years. Body weight (W); Height (H); Upper arm circumference (UAC); Tricipital (TS) and Subscapular skinfolds (SS) were measured, and Body Mass Index (BMI) and muscle (UMA) and fat (AFA) brachial areas were calculated. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated by IOTF. To compare C1-C2 we used a generalized linear model with log-transformed variables, and chi square test. Results: There were significant and positive differences between C2-C1 in W, UAC, SS, TS, and AFA. In contrast, H was not significantly different and UMA was significantly different but with negative values. The prevalence of over-weight and obesity was 14.5 % and 3.8 % in C1, and 17.0 % and 6.8 % in C2. Differences between cohorts were significant for obesity. Conclusion: The shifts observed for soft tissues – positive trend for fat and negative for muscle area – occurring without changes in height lead us to suppose that in these three decades, La Plata's population has experienced deterioration in living conditions and important changes in their lifestyle, such as an increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sedentary habits.
    Anthropologischer Anzeiger 06/2014; 71(3). DOI:10.1127/0003-5548/2014/0364 · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "For example, children and adults in lower-income groups and several racial/ethnic minority groups—African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, American Indians , Pacific islanders—as well as persons from the southern part of the United States carry substantially greater risk for obesity than comparison populations (i.e., high-income groups, non-Hispanic whites, or persons from outside the South) (Kumanyika et al., 2008; Ogden et al., 2010a, 2010b; Wang and Beydoun, 2007). Among children , obesity levels have generally increased more steeply among African-Americans and Mexican-Americans than among whites (Freedman et al., 2006). 1 Although this essay does not limit its scope to children, obesity disparities among children are critical because food preferences and practices remain fairly stable over the lifecourse (Harris and Bargh, 2009). Children are also a common intended audience for marketing communications about food, prompting researchers in public health and other academic disciplines to investigate the role of marketing activity, and the food marketing environment more broadly, in the obesity epidemic. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities.
    Preventive Medicine 12/2011; 55(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.12.021 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "As shown in previous studies [4], the prevalence of severe obesity varies markedly by race/ethnicity group. In the current study, we observed rates of 4.9%, 8.0%, and 7.3% for white, black, and Hispanic youth, respectively, which are higher across all racial/ethnic groups than Q7 those derived from the 1999–2002 NHANES data [4]. Although differences in sampling may explain differences in prevalence across studies, the current findings provide compelling evidence of high rates of severe obesity in American middle school children. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of severe obesity and associated risk in the HEALTHY cohort. A total of 6,365 students were assessed at school-based screenings. Results showed that 6.9% of students were severely obese. Severe obesity was associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk and race/ethnicity. Severe obesity is common and requires preventive intervention.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 12/2010; 47(6):604-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.04.017 · 2.75 Impact Factor
Show more