Endogenously produced ganglioside GM3 endows etoposide and doxorubicin resistance by up-regulating Bcl-2 expression in 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT The ganglioside patterns have been shown to dramatically change during cell proliferation and differentiation and in certain cell-cycle phases, brain development, and cancer malignancy. To investigate the significance of the ganglioside GM3 in cancer malignancy, we established GM3-reconstituted cells by transfecting the cDNA of GM3 synthase into a GM3-deficient subclone of the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma cell line (Uemura, S. (2003) Glycobiology, 13, 207-216). The GM3-reconstituted cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by etoposide and doxorubicin. There were no changes in the expression levels of topoisomerase IIalpha or P-glycoprotein, or in the uptake of doxorubicin between the GM3-reconstituted cells and the mock-transfected cells. To understand the mechanism of the etoposide-resistant phenotype acquired in the GM3-reconstituted cells, we investigated their apoptotic signaling. Although no difference was observed in the phosphorylation of p53 at serine-15-residue site by etoposide between the GM3-reconstituted cells and mock-transfected cells, the activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 was specifically inhibited in the former. We found that the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was increased in the GM3-reconstituted cells. Moreover, wild-type 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma cells, which have an abundance of GM3, exhibited no DNA fragmentation following etoposide treatment and expressed higher levels of the Bcl-2 protein compared with the J5 subclone. Thus, these results support the conclusion that endogenously produced GM3 is involved in malignant phenotypes, including anticancer drug resistance through up-regulating the Bcl-2 protein in this lung cancer cell line.
Article: Invariant natural killer T cell agonist modulates experimental focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence demonstrates a correlation between Th2 cytokines and the development of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Therefore, we hypothesized that GSL-1, a monoglycosylceramide from Sphingomonas ssp. with pro-Th1 activity on invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) lymphocytes, could counterbalance the Th2 profile and modulate glomerulosclerosis. Using an adriamycin(ADM)-based model of FSGS, we found that BALB/c mice presented albuminuria and glomerular degeneration in association with a Th2-like pro-fibrogenic profile; these mice also expressed a combination of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α, and chemokines, such as RANTES and eotaxin. In addition, we observed a decrease in the mRNA levels of GD3 synthase, the enzyme responsible for GD3 metabolism, a glycolipid associated with podocyte physiology. GSL-1 treatment inhibited ADM-induced renal dysfunction and preserved kidney architecture, a phenomenon associated with the induction of a Th1-like response, increased levels of GD3 synthase transcripts and inhibition of pro-fibrotic transcripts and inflammatory cytokines. TGF-β analysis revealed increased levels of circulating protein and tissue transcripts in both ADM- and GSL-1-treated mice, suggesting that TGF-β could be associated with both FSGS pathology and iNKT-mediated immunosuppression; therefore, we analyzed the kidney expression of phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and SMAD7 proteins, molecules associated with the deleterious and protective effects of TGF-β, respectively. We found high levels of phosphoSMAD2/3 in ADM mice in contrast to the GSL-1 treated group in which SMAD7 expression increased. These data suggest that GSL-1 treatment modulates the downstream signaling of TGF-β through a renoprotective pathway. Finally, GSL-1 treatment at day 4, a period when proteinuria was already established, was still able to improve renal function, preserve renal structure and inhibit fibrogenic transcripts. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the iNKT agonist GSL-1 modulates the pathogenesis of ADM-induced glomerulosclerosis and may provide an alternative approach to disease management.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32454. · 4.09 Impact Factor