13-cis Retinoic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human SEB-1 sebocytes.
ABSTRACT Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA)) is the most potent inhibitor of sebum production, a key component in the pathophysiology of acne, yet its mechanism of action remains largely unknown. The effects of 13-cis RA, 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle proteins were examined in SEB-1 sebocytes and keratinocytes. 13-cis RA causes significant dose-dependent and time-dependent decreases in viable SEB-1 sebocytes. A portion of this decrease can be attributed to cell cycle arrest as evidenced by decreased DNA synthesis, increased p21 protein expression, and decreased cyclin D1. Although not previously demonstrated in sebocytes, we report that 13-cis RA induces apoptosis in SEB-1 sebocytes as shown by increased Annexin V-FITC staining, increased TUNEL staining, and increased cleaved caspase 3 protein. Furthermore, the ability of 13-cis RA to induce apoptosis cannot be recapitulated by 9-cis RA or ATRA, and it is not inhibited by the presence of a retinoid acid receptor (RAR) pan-antagonist AGN 193109. Taken together these data indicate that 13-cis RA causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in SEB-1 sebocytes by a RAR-independent mechanism, which contributes to its sebosuppressive effect and the resolution of acne.
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Article: Aging and dry eye disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD.Experimental gerontology 04/2012; 47(7):483-90. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2012.03.020 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acne drug isotretinoin has 13-cis retinoic acid as its active agent. Adverse effects that have been described include severe depression. Animal studies indicate that the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to retinoic acid. Changes induced by isotretinoin to hippocampal function could contribute to depression but may be more evident in altered visuospatial learning and memory, the primary function of the hippocampus. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a course of oral isotretinoin therapy would result in declining visuospatial learning and memory. CANTAB tasks designed to assess visuospatial memory were performed repeatedly on 14 males and 3 females in an open prospective observational study of patients with severe acne undergoing isotretinoin therapy. Beck's Depression Inventory and Global Acne Grade were also administered. Performance stayed unchanged for DMS, SRM and PRM tasks, while surprisingly participants improved their speed on the PRM task. Performance improved across sessions on the PAL task, and moreover the dose of isotretinoin correlated with improvement in the total trial score, reduction in total error rate and stage completed at the first trial. Isotretinoin does not reduce learning and memory and our study suggests that it may instead lead to a dose-related improvement in specific aspects of hippocampal learning and memory. Retinoic acid functions in the hippocampus as the active metabolite of vitamin A, suggesting that this may be a limiting factor in the human hippocampus and addition of exogenous retinoic acid brings levels closer to an optimal state.Psychopharmacology 12/2011; 221(4):667-74. DOI:10.1007/s00213-011-2611-y · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acne vulgaris is characterized by excess sebum production, and apart from all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) or 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cisRA), there are few effective agents for acne therapy that directly suppresses sebaceous lipogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that topical application of a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, nobiletin, to hamster auricles decreased skin surface triacylglycerols (TG) level and the size of sebaceous glands along with inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-dependent TG synthesis and sebocyte proliferation. The inhibitory actions were similar to that observed with atRA and 13-cisRA in hamster sebocytes. The antilipogenic and antiproliferative actions of nobiletin were also reproduced in UVB (5.4 kJ/m2)-irradiated hamsters, which showed aberrant enhancement of sebum accumulation and sebaceous enlargement. Furthermore, nobiletin, but not 13-cisRA, augmented sebum excretion along with increases in intracellular cAMP level, protein kinase A (PKA) activation, and apoptosis-independent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization in cell membrane. These phenomena were reproduced by forskolin and inhibited by a PKA inhibitor, H-89. These results provide early evidence that nobiletin is an effective candidate for acne therapy through mechanisms that include the inhibition of DGAT-dependent TG synthesis and sebocyte proliferation, and the progression of apoptosis-independent and PS-externalization-dependent sebum excretion by PKA activation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2008; 127(12):2740-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.jid.5700927 · 6.37 Impact Factor