Article

Isolation & antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Western Nepal.

Department of Microbiology, Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 2.06). 03/2006; 123(2):145-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Shigellae play an important role as a causative organism of acute gastroenteritis, which is a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in especially in developing countries. This study was carried out to determine the isolation and pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella in patients with acute gastroenteritis in western Nepal.
The study included all patients with acute gastroenteritis who visited a tertiary care hospital at Pokhara, Nepal during a 2-year period (2002-2004). The isolates was confirmed as Shigella by biochemical reaction and slide agglutination test using specific antisera. Antibiotic sensitivity test was determined by agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs was detected.
Of the 770 stool samples, 83 (10.8%) yielded Shigella. Shigella flexneri caused 56 (67.4%) of the total cases of shigellosis followed by S. dysenteriae 12 (14.5%), S. sonnei 10 (12%) and S. boydii 5 (6%). Of the 83 isolates, 67 (80.7%) showed resistance to various drugs and 62 (74.7%) were resistant to two or more drugs. Resistance to cotrimoxazole was 80.7 per cent followed by tetracycline 74.7 per cent, ampicillin 53.0 per cent, nalidixic acid 31.3 per cent and ciprofloxacin 2.4 per cent. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of those drugs were also very high. All isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone.
The findings of our study suggested that Shigellae was an important etiological agent for acute gastroenteritis, with a high rate of drug resistance and requires constant monitoring in this region.

1 Bookmark
 · 
227 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute infectious diarrhea is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
    Iranian Red Crescent medical journal. 04/2014; 16(4):e12329.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shigellosis remains an important public health problem in developing countries with S. sonnei and S. flexneri in US, Europe and in Asian countries being of importance. This study evaluates the protective effect of Lactobacillus casei cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) against multiple drug resistance (MDR) clinical samples of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in vitro. S. sonnei and S .flexneri was identified by common microbiological and serological methods. Antibiogram with 18 antibiotics were tested for 34 positive cultures by disc diffusion method. The Samples showed considerable resistance to antibiotics. Antimicrobial effects of CFCS were tested against S. sonnei and S. flexneri by agar-well assay and broth micro dilution methods. In addition, the antimicrobial activity remained active treatment after adjust pH 7, adding Proteinase K and heating for L. casei. The results implicate that L. casei strongly inhibits the development of pathogen samples. In contrast, via the disc diffusion method 4 out of 18 antibiogram have shown complete resistance against the pathogen samples. In addition, the natures of antimicrobial properties have been tested in different conditions such as various pH, temperature and presence of proteinase K. The MIC50 (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MIC90 of CFCS of L. casei were determined, for S. sonnei were 2.25 and 10.5, for S .flexneri were 5.25 and 5.25 respectively. The results have shown a significant resistance pattern by these four antibiotics in this case. The data indicates that. L. casei highly resistant against to antibiotics, heat, Proteinase K and so many activities against MDR Shigella pathogenic strains . L. casei is the best probiotics candidate.
    Iranian Red Crescent medical journal. 02/2013; 15(2):122-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and non-common plants used by aborigines of Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the disk-diffusion method with 17 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethno-medicinal uses and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 02/2015; 5(2):136-150..

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
390 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014