Wnt induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy through the Runx2 transcription factor
ABSTRACT We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying canonical Wnt-mediated regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy using chick upper sternal chondrocytes. Replication competent avian sarcoma (RCAS) viral over-expression of Wnt8c and Wnt9a, upregulated type X collagen (col10a1) and Runx2 mRNA expression thereby inducing chondrocyte hypertrophy. Wnt8c and Wnt9a strongly inhibited mRNA levels of Sox9 and type II collagen (col2a1). Wnt8c further enhanced canonical bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2)-induced expression of Runx2 and col10a1 while Wnt8c and Wnt9a inhibited TGF-beta-induced expression of Sox9 and col2a1. Over-expression of beta-catenin mimics the effect of Wnt8c and Wnt9a by upregulating Runx2, col10a1, and alkaline phosphatase (AP) mRNA levels while it inhibits col2a1 transcription. Western blot analysis shows that Wnt8c and beta-catenin also induces Runx2 protein levels in chondrocytes. Thus, our results indicate that activation of the canonical beta-catenin Wnt signaling pathway induces chondrocyte hypertrophy and maturation. We further investigated the effects of beta-catenin-TCF/Lef on Runx2 promoter. Co-transfection of lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef1) and beta-catenin in chicken upper sternal chondrocytes together with deletion constructs of the Runx2 promoter shows that the proximal region spanning the first 128 base pairs of this promoter is responsible for the Wnt-mediated induction of Runx2. Mutation of the TCF/Lef binding site in the -128 fragment of the Runx2 promoter resulted in loss of its responsiveness to beta-catenin. Additionally, gel-shift assay analyses determined the DNA/protein interaction of the TCF/Lef binding sites on the Runx2 promoter. Finally, our site-directed mutagenesis data demonstrated that the Runx2 site on type X collagen promoter is required for canonical Wnt induction of col10a1. Altogether we demonstrate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is regulated by TGF-beta and BMP-2 in chick upper sternal chondrocytes, and mediates chondrocyte hypertrophy at least partly through activation of Runx2 which in turn may induce col10a1 expression.
- SourceAvailable from: Yufeng Dong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While Notch signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of cartilage formation, its downstream targets are unknown. To address this we performed gain and losses of function experiments and demonstrate that Notch inhibition of chondrogenesis acts via up-regulation of the transcription factor Twist1. Upon Notch activation, murine limb bud mesenchymal progenitor cells in micromass culture displayed an inhibition of chondrogenesis. Twist1 was found to be exclusively expressed in mesenchymal progenitor cells at the onset stage of chondrogenesis during Notch activation. Inhibition of Notch signaling in these cells significantly reduced protein expression of Twist1. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of NICD1 on MPC chondrogenesis was markedly reduced by knocking down of Twist1. Constitutively active Notch signaling significantly enhanced Twist1 promoter activity; whereas mutation studies indicated that a putative NICD/RBPjK binding element in the promoter region is required for the Notch-responsiveness of the Twist1 promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed that the Notch intracellular domain influences Twist1 by directly binding to the Twist1 promoter. These data provide a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms behind Notch inhibition of the onset of chondrogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2015; 403(C). DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2015.01.015 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chondrogenesis is a developmental process that is controlled and coordinated by many growth and differentiation factors, in addition to environmental factors that initiate or suppress cellular signaling pathways and the transcription of specific genes in a temporal-spatial manner. As key signaling molecules in regulating cell proliferation, homeostasis and development, both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the Wnt family participate in morphogenesis and tissue patterning, playing important roles in skeletal development, especially chondrogenesis. Recent findings suggest that both signals are also actively involved in arthritis and related diseases. Despite the implication that crosstalk between MAPK and Wnt signaling has a significant function in cancer, few studies have summarized this interaction and its regulation of chondrogenesis. In this review, we focus on MAPK and Wnt signaling, referencing their relationships in various types of cells and particularly to their influence on chondrogenesis and cartilage development. We also discuss the interactions between MAPK and Wnt signaling with respect to cartilage-related diseases such as osteoarthritis and explore potential therapeutic targets for disease treatments.Cell and Tissue Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00441-014-2010-x · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent in vivo findings suggest that the bone sparing capacity of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in diabetic mice might be due at least in part through targeting a suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoblasts. We here aimed to examine the inhibitory action of a high glucose environment on specific components of the canonical Wnt pathway, and the putative compensatory effects of PTHrP, in osteoblastic cell cultures. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and primary cultures of fetal mouse calvaria were exposed to normal (5.5 mM) or high (25 mM) D-glucose (HG), with or without PTHrP (1-36) or PTHrP (107-139) for different times. In some experiments, MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated with the Wnt pathway activators Wnt3a and LiCl, or were transfected with plasmids encoding either a mutated β-catenin that cannot be targeted for degradation or a human PTHrP (-36/+139) cDNA, or the corresponding empty plasmid, in the presence or absence of HG. The gene expression of Wnt3a and low density receptor-like proteins (LRP)-5 and 6, as well as β-catenin protein stabilization and β-catenin-dependent transcription activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress status under HG condition was also assessed. The present data demonstrate that HG can target different components of the canonical Wnt pathway, while β-catenin degradation appears to be a key event leading to inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in mouse osteoblastic cells. Both PTHrP peptides tested were able to counteract this deleterious action of HG. These in vitro findings also provide new clues to understand the underlying mechanisms whereby PTHrP can increase bone formation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/2013; 114(8). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24535 · 3.37 Impact Factor