The gene for polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is amplified in late-stage prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Overexpression of the polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) has been found in several malignancies, including prostate cancer, with an aggressive phenotype. Amplification of the gene has previously been demonstrated in several malignancies, but not in prostate cancer. Our goal was to evaluate the gene copy number and expression alterations of EZH2 in prostate cancer. The copy number of EZH2 in cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC-3, 22Rv1), xenografts (n = 10), and clinical tumors (n = 191) was studied with fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cell lines had a gain of EZH2. Eight of the ten xenografts showed an increased copy number of the gene, including one case of high-level amplification (>or=5 copies of the gene and EZH2/centromere ratio >or=2). 34/125 (27%) of untreated prostate carcinomas showed increased copy number, but only one case of low-level amplification (>or=5 copies of the gene and EZH2/centromere ratio <2), whereas half (25/46) of the hormone-refractory carcinomas showed increased copy number, including seven cases of low-level amplification and three cases of high-level amplification (P < 0.0001). Expression of EZH2 was significantly (P = 0.0009) higher in hormone-refractory prostate cancer compared with that in benign prostatic hyperplasia or untreated cancer, according to quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. Also, the expression of EZH2 protein was found to be higher in hormone-refractory tumors than in hormone-naïve tumors by immunohistochemistry. The EZH2 gene amplification was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased EZH2 protein expression. The data show that amplification of the EZH2 gene is rare in early prostate cancer, whereas a fraction of late-stage tumors contains the gene amplification leading to the overexpression of the gene, thus indicating the importance of EZH2 in the progression of prostate cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiaoqin Yang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diversified histone modifications (HMs) are essential epigenetic features. They play important roles in fundamental biological processes including transcription, DNA repair and DNA replication. Chromatin regulators (CRs), which are indispensable in epigenetics, can mediate HMs to adjust chromatin structures and functions. With the development of ChIP-Seq technology, there is an opportunity to study CR and HM profiles at the whole-genome scale. However, no specific resource for the integration of CR ChIP-Seq data or CR-HM ChIP-Seq linkage pairs is currently available. Therefore, we constructed the CR Cistrome database, available online at http://compbio.tongji.edu.cn/cr and http://cistrome.org/cr/, to further elucidate CR functions and CR-HM linkages. Within this database, we collected all publicly available ChIP-Seq data on CRs in human and mouse and categorized the data into four cohorts: the reader, writer, eraser and remodeler cohorts, together with curated introductions and ChIP-Seq data analysis results. For the HM readers, writers and erasers, we provided further ChIP-Seq analysis data for the targeted HMs and schematized the relationships between them. We believe CR Cistrome is a valuable resource for the epigenetics community.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) resulting from parathyroid tumors is a common endocrine disorder with incompletely understood etiology. In renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) occurs with multiple tumor development as a result of calcium and vitamin D regulatory disturbance. The aim of the study was to investigate a potential role of the histone 3 lysine 27 methyltransferase EZH2 in parathyroid tumorigenesis. Parathyroid tumors from patients with pHPT included adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with HPT secondary to uremia, and normal parathyroid tissue specimens were included in the study. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, bisulfite pyrosequencing, colony formation assay, and RNA interference was used. EZH2 was overexpressed in a subset of the benign and in all malignant parathyroid tumors as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Overexpression was explained by EZH2 gene amplification in a large fraction of tumors. EZH2 depletion by RNA interference inhibited sHPT-1 parathyroid cell line proliferation as determined by tritium-thymidine incorporation and colony formation assay. EZH2 depletion also interfered with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by increased expression of growth-suppressive Axin 2, a negative regulator of β-catenin stability. Indeed, EZH2 contributed to the total level of aberrantly accumulated transcriptionally active (nonphosphylated) β-catenin in the parathyroid tumor cells. To our knowledge EZH2 gene amplification presents the first genetic aberration common to parathyroid adenomas, secondary hyperplastic parathyroid glands, and parathyroid carcinomas. This supports the possibility of a common pathway in parathyroid tumor development.Endocrine Related Cancer 11/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor
- Epigenomics 02/2014; 6(1):5-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor