[Diversity of halophilic archaea in hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia, China].
ABSTRACT The aims of this work were to explore the diversity of halophilic archaea in hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia, China and to collect novel halophilic archaea. One hundred and sixty-five halophilic archaea were isolated from the three different types of hypersaline lakes (Erliannor, shangmatala and Xilin soda lake) in Inner Mongolia. By analysis of the restriction patterns of amplified 16S rDNA (ARDRA) with the enzyme Afa I and Hae II, respectively, the isolates were clustered into 14 genotypes, and the representatives of each genotype were randomly chosen for the determination of 16S rDNA sequence. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolates were clustered into 10 groups: Halorubrum, Natronococcus, Natronorubrum, Haloterrigena, Halorhabdus, Halobiforma, Haloarcula, Haloferax and other two unknown groups. Dominant isolates were related to Halorubrum spp. in all three lakes. Some of the isolates studied showed less affiliation with known taxa ( <98% sequence similarity) and may represent novel taxa. Two isolates HXH33 and HSH33 showed very less affiliation with known genus ( < 93% sequence similarity) and may represent two new genera. These results suggest that diverse archaea exist in and the unknown archaea thrive in the hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia.
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ABSTRACT: Prokaryotic extremophiles were the first representatives of life on Earth and they are responsible for the genesis of geological structures during the evolution and creation of all currently known ecosystems. Flexibility of the genome probably allowed life to adapt to a wide spectrum of extreme environments. As a result, modern prokaryotic diversity formed in a framework of physico-chemical factors, and it is composed of: thermophilic, psychrophilic, acidophilic, alkaliphilic, halophilic, barophilic, and radioresistant species. This artificial systematics cannot reflect the multiple actions of different environmental factors since one organism could unite characteristics of several extreme-groups. In this review we show the current status of studies in all fields of extremophiles and summarize the limits of life for different species of microbial extremophiles. We also discuss the finding of extremophiles from unusual places such as soils, and briefly review recent studies of microfossils in meteorites in the context of the significance of microbial extremophiles to Astrobiology.Critical Reviews in Microbiology 02/2007; 33(3):183-209. DOI:10.1080/10408410701451948 · 6.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogenase is the main catabolic enzyme of hydrogen-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria. In haloalkaliphilic sulfate reducers, hydrogenase, particularly if it is periplasmic, functions at high concentrations of Na+ ions and low concentrations of H+ ions. The hydrogenases of the newly isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfonatronum thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Desulfonatrovibrio hydrogenovorans exhibit different sensitivity to Na+ ions and remain active at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 4.3 M and NaHCO3 concentrations between 0 and 1.2 M. The hydrogenases of D. lacustre and D. thiodismutans remain active at pH values between 6 and 12. The optimum pH for the hydrogenase of D. thiodismutans is 9.5. The optimum pH for the cytoplasmic and periplasmic hydrogenases of D. lacustre is 10. Thus, the hydrogenases of D. thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Dv. hydrogenovorans are tolerant to high concentrations of sodium salts and extremely tolerant to high pH values, which makes them unique objects for biochemical studies and biotechnological applications.Mikrobiologiia 07/2005; 74(4):460-5. DOI:10.1007/s11021-005-0079-7
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ABSTRACT: A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, halophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium, designated halo-1(T), was isolated from sediment of Xiarinaoer soda lake, located in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Strain halo-1(T) grew in the presence of 9-30 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 19 %) and at pH 5-10 (optimum pH 9). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the isolate were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (58.35 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (12.89 %) and C(16 : 0) (6.52 %). The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipid and a phospholipid of unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 46.4 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain halo-1(T) showed the highest similarity (93.9 %) to Salsuginibacillus kocurii CH9d(T). Strain halo-1(T) could be clearly differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relative on the basis of several phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic features. Therefore, strain halo-1(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Salsuginibacillus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain halo-1(T) (=CGMCC 1.7653(T) =NBRC 104934(T)).International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 09/2009; 60(Pt 6):1339-43. DOI:10.1099/ijs.0.010181-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor