Article

G72/G30 in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: review and meta-analysis.

National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3719, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 08/2006; 60(2):106-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.01.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Association of the G72/G30 locus with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has now been reported in several studies. The G72/G30 locus may be one of several that account for the evidence of linkage that spans a broad region of chromosome 13q. However, the story of G72/G30 is complex. Our meta-analysis of published association studies shows highly significant evidence of association between nucleotide variations in the G72/G30 region and schizophrenia, along with compelling evidence of association with bipolar disorder. But the associated alleles and haplotypes are not identical across studies, and some strongly associated variants are located approximately 50 kb telomeric of G72. Interestingly, G72 and G30 are transcribed in opposite directions; hence, their transcripts could cross-regulate translation. A functional native protein and functional motifs for G72 or G30 remain to be demonstrated. The interaction of G72 with d-amino acid oxidase, itself of interest as a modulator of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors through regulation of d-serine levels, has been reported in one study and could be a key functional link that deserves further investigation. The association findings in the G72/G30 region, among the most compelling in psychiatry, may expose an important molecular pathway involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to explain more of the "missing heritability" of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods to identify a larger proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that impact disease risk are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q-Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls) to show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function of association with BD and vice versa with a corresponding reduction in FDR. Applying the conditional FDR method, we identified 58 loci associated with SCZ and 35 loci associated with BD below the conditional FDR level of 0.05. Of these, 14 loci were associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2013; 9(4):e1003455. · 8.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ion channels are crucial components of cellular excitability and are involved in many neurological diseases. This review focuses on the sodium leak, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-activated NALCN channel that is predominantly expressed in neurons where it regulates the resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. NALCN is part of a complex that includes not only GPCRs, but also UNC-79, UNC-80, NLF-1 and src family of Tyrosine kinases (SFKs). There is growing evidence that the NALCN channelosome critically regulates its ion conduction. Both in mammals and invertebrates, animal models revealed an involvement in many processes such as locomotor behaviors, sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, and respiratory rhythms. There is also evidence that alteration in this NALCN channelosome can cause a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, mutations in the NALCN gene were identified in Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (INAD) patients, as well as in patients with an Autosomal Recessive Syndrome with severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay. Deletions in NALCN gene were also reported in diseases such as 13q syndrome. In addition, genes encoding NALCN, NLF- 1, UNC-79, and UNC-80 proteins may be susceptibility loci for several diseases including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy, alcoholism, cardiac diseases and cancer. Although the physiological role of the NALCN channelosome is poorly understood, its involvement in human diseases should foster interest for drug development in the near future. Toward this goal, we review here the current knowledge on the NALCN channelosome in physiology and diseases.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 05/2014; 8:132. · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a severe illness with few treatments available. Understanding BPD pathophysiology and identifying potential relevant targets could prove useful for developing new treatments. Remarkably, subtle impairments of mitochondrial function may play an important role in BPD pathophysiology. Areas covered: This article focuses on human studies and reviews evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in BPD as a promising target for the development of new, improved treatments. Mitochondria are crucial for energy production, generated mainly through the electron transport chain (ETC) and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling as well as synaptic plasticity. Mitochondria move throughout the neurons to provide energy for intracellular signaling. Studies showed polymorphisms of mitochondria-related genes as risk factors for BPD. Postmortem studies in BPD also show decreased ETC activity/expression and increased nitrosative and oxidative stress (OxS) in patient brains. BPD has been also associated with increased OxS, Ca(2+) dysregulation and increased proapoptotic signaling in peripheral blood. Neuroimaging studies consistently show decreased energy levels and pH in brains of BPD patients. Expert opinion: Targeting mitochondrial function, and their role in energy metabolism, synaptic plasticity and cell survival, may be an important avenue for development of new mood-stabilizing agents.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 07/2014; · 4.90 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
145 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014