Rubella infection in pregnancy

Telefono Rosso, Teratology Information Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli, 8. Rome, Italy.
Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2006; 21(4):390-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2005.01.014
Source: PubMed


Rubella is the first virus demonstrated as a teratogen. There is a high risk to develop congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the infection occurs in the first part of pregnancy, particularly in women without specific immunological protection. Specific therapies to prevent CRS are not available. Many developed countries have specific vaccination programs and maternal rubella is rare. However, in developing countries or where campaigns of rubella surveillance and preconceptional vaccination are inadequate, there are still cases of CRS registered despite primary possibilities of prevention. Maternal infection is not indicative of vertical transmission in 100% of cases, and damage does not necessarily occur in all cases of fetal infection. This is the reason why an adequate prenatal counselling is mandatory, particularly in cases of proven maternal infection. Advanced prenatal diagnostic techniques, invasive or not, should be offered to the women especially in order to distinguish the cases without fetal damage. Prevention of voluntary interruption of pregnancy for the latter or in case of maternal false IgM rubella antibody positivity or IgM "chronic carrier" patients is mandatory. World wide, the aim is to perform an adequate primary prevention through vaccination of childbearing age women without specific immunological protection.

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Available from: Gianluca Straface, Feb 18, 2014
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    • "Rubella virus causes mild infection in adults and is characterized by malaise, low-grade fever and a morbilliform rash appearing on the same day [4] [5]. However, during pregnancy, the infection may lead to miscarriage, fetal death or the birth of the infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: In non-immune women in the first trimester of pregnancy, Rubella Virus (RV) infection can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In Togo, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence. Objective: To assess the rate of immunization against Rubella Virus among pregnant women. Methods: Serum samples obtained from 232 pregnant women were tested for rubella-specific IgG antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Overall, the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies was 85% (192/226) [CI 95%: 82.7- 87.3%]. All of the seropositive pregnant women had a protective level (titre > 10 UI/mL). The rates of immunization increased with age and gavidity but differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The high rate of immunization found, in absence of a routine vaccination program supports the presence of an endemic rubella infection in Lomé. To prevent CRS and eliminate RV, free access to vaccination for at least children and women of childbearing age in Togo is advocated.
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    • "eight weeks of pregnancy (De Santis et al., 2006).The seroprevalence obtained in this study is similar to the previous reports of 97.7%, 93.1% and 89.4% by Muhammad et al., (2010), Olajideet al. (2012), in Zaria and Adewumi et al. (2013) in Ibadan Nigeria while 88.6% and 92.9% were reported by Fokunanget al (2010) in Younde, Cameroun and Kumbich et al. (2012) in Eldoret, Kenya respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rubella infection is generally mild in children. However, infection during pregnancy can leads to fetal death or congenital defects known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome. The seroprevalence of IgG to rubella virus was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay among 400 pregnant women between the ages of 15-45 years attending ante-natal clinics in Kaduna metropolis. Of the 400 samples tested, consisting 20 in their first trimester, 260 in second and 120 in third trimester, 386 (96.5%) were IgG seropositive. Seroprevalence of 95.2% - 100% was obtained across the age groups. In relation to stages of pregnancy 19 (95.0%), 251 (96.5%) and 116 (96.7%) were seropositive in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively. The seroprevalence obtained in this study indicates that majority of the pregnant women had protective antibody due to previous exposure to the virus. However, 3.5% of the pregnant women were susceptible. Therefore, there is a need for government to incorporate rubella vaccine to be part of national immunization programme and screening of women of childbearing age so as to reduce subsequent burden of congenital rubella. Keywords: Rubella, Seroprevalence, Pregnancy, Antibody, ELISA
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    • "Pulmonary valve defects are caused from chromosomal defects, and single gene disorders (Holt-Oram syndrome, heterotaxy syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome). Maternal rubella infection (8), maternal febrile illness (9), maternal medical uses (phenytoin, thalidomide), organic solvents (10) and air pollution with CO (11) may be followed with pulmonary valve defects. Interaction of genetic and environmental factors during pregnancy may cause the unusual complex congenital heart disease unknown till now. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction is a rare adult congenital cardiac syndrome. This occurrence with prolonged survival is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a patient who presented with this defect with common atrioventricular junction who survived to the age of 32. We describe a 32-year-old man with atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction guarded by a common valve. His history, clinical course, and anatomic findings are discussed along with the factors which may have contributed to his longevity, which is unique in the medical literature. His management reflected the state of medical knowledge at the time when he presented, and although alternate approaches may have been utilized if the patient presented today. We discuss the findings, frequency, classifi cation, and management of congenital defects. Development of embryonic structure is altered by interaction between genetics and environmental factors toward a rare associated of congenital cardiac defects-complex congenital heart disease. This case demonstrates that patients with very complex congenital cardiac disease may survive to adulthood, presenting challenges in both medical and surgical treatment.
    Acta Informatica Medica 12/2013; 21(4):293-294. DOI:10.5455/aim.2013.21.293-294
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