Pharmacokinetic study of orphenadrine using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).
ABSTRACT We developed and validated a simple, rapid, and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method with simple protein precipitation for the determination of orphenadrine. Injection-to-injection running time was 3 min with a retention time of orphenadrine of 1.1 min. The linear assay range was 1-200 ng/mL (r2 > 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay imprecisions were CV 0.6-4.2% and CV 1.6-6.1%, respectively. The accuracy, extraction recovery, specificity and stability were satisfactory. Using the measured plasma concentrations of orphenadrine in 24 healthy subjects, pharmacokinetic profiles of orphenadrine were evaluated (AUC(0-72,) 1565+/-731 ng h/mL, Cmax 82.8+/-26.2 ng/mL, Tmax 3.0+/-0.9 h, elimination half-life 25.8+/-10.3 h).
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of two skeletal muscle relaxants namely, tizanidine hydrochloride (I) and orphenadrine citrate (II) in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of a binary complex between the studied drugs and eosin Y in aqueous buffered medium (pH 3.5). Under the optimum conditions, the binary complex showed absorption maxima at 545 nm for tizanidine and 542 nm for orphenadrine. The calibration plots were rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-8 μg/mL and 1-12 μg/mL with limits of detection of 0.1 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL for tizanidine and orphenadrine respectively. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the complex were studied and optimized. The method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their dosage forms; and to the content uniformity test of tizanidine in tablets.Chemistry Central Journal 01/2011; 5:60. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Orphenadrine is a drug acting on multiple targets, including muscarinic, histaminic, and NMDA receptors. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and in musculoskeletal disorders. It is also used as an analgesic, although its mechanism of action is still unknown. Both physiological and pharmacological results have demonstrated a critical role for voltage-gated sodium channels in many types of chronic pain syndromes. We tested the hypothesis that orphenadrine may block voltage-gated sodium channels. By using patch-clamp experiments, we evaluated the effects of the drug on whole-cell sodium currents in HEK293 cells expressing the skeletal muscle (Nav1.4), cardiac (Nav1.5) and neuronal (Nav1.1 and Nav1.7) subtypes of human sodium channels, as well as on whole-cell tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium currents likely conducted by Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channel subtypes in primary culture of rat DRG sensory neurons. The results indicate that orphenadrine inhibits sodium channels in a concentration-, voltage- and frequency-dependent manner. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we further show that orphenadrine binds to the same receptor as the local anesthetics. Orphenadrine affinities for resting and inactivated sodium channels were higher compared to those of known sodium channels blockers, such as mexiletine and flecainide. Low, clinically relevant orphenadrine concentration produces a significant block of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 channels, which are critical for experiencing pain sensations, indicating a role for sodium channel blockade in the clinical efficacy of orphenadrine as analgesic compound. On the other hand, block of Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 may contribute to the proconvulsive and proarrhythmic adverse reactions, especially observed during overdose.Pain 03/2009; 142(3):225-35. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of orphenadrine (ORPH) following a single intravenous (i.v.) dose was investigated in six camels (Camelus dormedarius). Orphenadrine was extracted from the plasma using a simple sensitive liquid-liquid extraction method and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Following i.v. administration plasma concentrations of ORPH decline bi-exponentially with distribution half-life (t(1/2)(alpha)) of 0.50+/-0.07h, elimination half-life (t(1/2)(beta)) of 3.57+/-0.55h, area under the time concentration curve (AUC) of 1.03+/-0.10g/hl(-1). The volume of distribution at steady state (Vd(ss)) 1.92+/-0.22lkg(-1), volume of the central compartment of the two compartment pharmacokinetic model (V(c)) 0.87+/-0.09lkg(-1), and total body clearance (Cl(T)) of 0.60+/-0.09l/hkg(-1). Three orphenadrine metabolites were identified in urine samples of camels. The first metabolite N-desmethyl-orphenadrine resulted from N-dealkylation of ORPH with molecular ion m/z 255. The second N,N-didesmethyl-orphenadrine, resulted from N-didesmethylation with molecular ion m/z 241. The third metabolite, hydroxyl-orphenadrine, resulted from the hydroxylation of ORPH with molecular ion m/z 285. ORPH and its metabolites in camel were extensively eliminated in conjugated form. ORPH remains detectable in camel urine for three days after i.v. administration of a single dose of 350mg orphenadrine aspartate.Research in Veterinary Science 04/2008; 85(3):563-9. · 1.77 Impact Factor