Article

Increased p53 activity does not accelerate telomere-driven ageing

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain
EMBO Reports (Impact Factor: 7.86). 06/2006; 7(5):546-52. DOI: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400667
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a great interest in determining the impact of p53 on ageing and, for this, it is important to discriminate among the known causes of ageing. Telomere loss is a well-established source of age-associated damage, which by itself can recapitulate ageing in mouse models. Here, we have used a genetic approach to interrogate whether p53 contributes to the elimination of telomere-damaged cells and its impact on telomere-driven ageing. We have generated compound mice carrying three functional copies of the p53 gene (super-p53) in a telomerase-deficient background and we have measured the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and DNA damage in several tissues. We have found that the in vivo load of telomere-derived chromosomal damage is significantly decreased in super-p53/telomerase-null mice compared with normal-p53/telomerase-null mice. Interestingly, the presence of extra p53 activity neither accelerates nor delays telomere-driven ageing. From these observations, we conclude that p53 has an active role in eliminating telomere-damaged cells, and we exclude the possibility of an age-promoting effect of p53 on telomere-driven ageing.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Juana M Flores, Jun 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within tissues, with the longest telomeres mapping to the known stem cell compartments. In mouse hair follicles, we show that cells with the longest telomeres map to the known stem cell compartments, colocalize with stem cell markers, and behave as stem cells upon treatment with mitogenic stimuli. Using K15-EGFP reporter mice, which mark hair follicle stem cells, we show that GFP-positive cells have the longest telomeres. The stem cell compartments in small intestine, testis, cornea, and brain of the mouse are also enriched in cells with the longest telomeres. This constitutes the description of a novel general property of adult stem cell compartments. Finally, we make the novel finding that telomeres shorten with age in different mouse stem cell compartments, which parallels a decline in stem cell functionality, suggesting that telomere loss may contribute to stem cell dysfunction with age.
    Genes & Development 04/2008; 22(5):654-67. DOI:10.1101/gad.451008 · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair (MMR) has important roles in meiotic and mitotic recombination, DNA damage signaling, and various aspects of DNA metabolism including class-switch recombination, somatic hypermutation, and triplet-repeat expansion. Defects in MMR are responsible for human cancers characterized by microsatellite instability. Intriguingly, MMR deficiency has been shown to rescue survival and proliferation of telomerase-deficient yeast strains. A putative role for MMR at mammalian telomeres that could have an impact on cancer and aging is, however, unknown. Here, we studied the role of MMR in response to dysfunctional telomeres by generating mice doubly deficient for telomerase and the PMS2 MMR gene (Terc-/-/PMS2-/- mice). PMS2 deficiency prolonged the mean lifespan and median survival of telomerase-deficient mice concomitant with rescue of degenerative pathologies. This rescue of survival was independent of changes in telomere length, in sister telomere recombination, and in microsatellite instability. Importantly, PMS2 deficiency rescued cell proliferation defects but not apoptotic defects in vivo, concomitant with a decreased p21 induction in response to short telomeres. The proliferative advantage conferred to telomerase-deficient cells by the ablation of PMS2 did not produce increased tumors. Indeed, Terc-/-/PMS2-/- mice showed reduced tumors compared with PMS2-/- mice, in agreement with a tumor suppressor role for short telomeres in the context of MMR deficiencies. These results highlight an unprecedented role for MMR in mediating the cellular response to dysfunctional telomeres in vivo by attenuating p21 induction.
    Genes & Development 10/2007; 21(17):2234-47. DOI:10.1101/gad.430107 · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TRF2 is a telomere-binding protein with roles in telomere protection and telomere-length regulation. The fact that TRF2 is up-regulated in some human tumors suggests a role of TRF2 in cancer. Mice that overexpress TRF2 in the skin, K5TRF2 mice, show critically short telomeres and are susceptible to UV-induced carcinogenesis as a result of deregulated XPF/ERCC1 activity, a nuclease involved in UV damage repair. Here we demonstrate that, when in combination with telomerase deficiency, TRF2 acts as a very potent oncogene in vivo. In particular, we show that telomerase deficiency dramatically accelerates TRF2-induced epithelial carcinogenesis in K5TRF2/Terc-/- mice, coinciding with increased chromosomal instability and DNA damage. Telomere recombination is also increased in these mice, suggesting that TRF2 favors the activation of alternative telomere maintenance mechanisms. Together, these results demonstrate that TRF2 increased expression is a potent oncogenic event that along with telomerase deficiency accelerates carcinogenesis, coincidental with a derepression of telomere recombination. These results are of particular relevance given that TRF2 is up-regulated in some human cancers. Furthermore, these data suggest that telomerase inhibition might not be effective to cease the growth of TRF2-overexpressing tumors.
    Genes & Development 02/2007; 21(2):206-20. DOI:10.1101/gad.406207 · 12.64 Impact Factor