Gonadotropin secretion in girls with turner syndrome measured by an ultrasensitive immunochemiluminometric assay.
ABSTRACT Gonadotropin levels measured by radioimmunoassays are high in girls with Turner syndrome (TS), but overlap significantly with those of normal girls. We hypothesized that gonadotropin levels would be above the normal range in TS when measured by ultrasensitive assays.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured in 68 TS, and 133 control girls using ultrasensitive immunochemiluminometric assays (ICMA).
FSH levels in TS and normal girls were highest in early childhood (56.0 +/- 39.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.8 IU/l, respectively), declined at 6-10 years of age (11.3 +/- 13.1 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 IU/l, respectively), and then increased again (104.4 +/- 68.9 and 4.9 +/- 2.4 IU/l, respectively). FSH was in the normal range on 11 of 27 occasions in TS girls with ages 5-10 years, and on 3 of 44 occasions in >10 years. Although average LH values were higher than those of controls, they often overlapped the normal range.
A significant number of TS girls have normal gonadotropins by ICMA. Spontaneous gonadotropin levels are not an adequate screening test for the diagnosis of TS but may prove useful for predicting the gonadal function and determining the appropriate timing of estrogen replacement therapy.
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Article: [Turner syndrome in adulthood].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Turner syndrome is a common genetic disorder associated with abnormalities of the X chromosome and occurs in about 50 per 100,000 liveborn girls. It is associated with reduced adult height, gonadal dysgenesis and thus insufficient circulating levels of female sex steroids and infertility. Morbidity and mortality are increased throughout the lifespan. The average intellectual performance is within the normal range. A number of recent clinical studies have given new insight particularly into the adult phase of Turner syndrome. Treatment with growth hormone during childhood and adolescence enables a considerable gain in adult height. In most cases puberty has to be induced and female sex hormone replacement therapy is given during adulthood. Type 2 diabetes is often seen, and hypertension and associated cardiovascular disorders are frequent. The proper treatments of these disorders have not been firmly established. Since the risk of cardiovascular and endocrinological disease is clearly elevated, proper care during adulthood is crucial. Cognition and social functioning are altered in Turner syndrome.Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 11/2007; 151(42):2354-5; author reply 2355.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian failure can result from several different genetic mechanisms—X chromosomal abnormalities, autosomal recessive genes causing various types of XX gonadal dysgenesis, and autosomal dominant genes. The number and precise location of loci on the X are still under investigation, but it is clear that, in aggregate, these genes are responsible for ovarian maintenance, given that monosomy X shows germ cells that undergo accelerated atresia. Despite recent hypotheses, at present there is no evidence for a gene directing primary ovarian differentiation; this process may be constitutive. Phenotypic/karyotypic correlation and limited molecular confirmation have long shown that proximal Xp and proximal Xq contain regions of the most importance to ovarian maintenance. Terminal deletions at Xp11 result in 50% primary amenorrhea and 50% premature ovarian failure or fertility. Deletions at Xq13 usually produce primary amenorrhea. Terminal deletions nearer the telomeres on either Xp of Xq bring about premature ovarian failure more often than complete ovarian failure. The X-linked zinc finger gene (ZFX) and diaphanous 2 Drosophila homologue (DIAPH2) are the only candidate genes for ovarian maintenance that map to the X chromosome. Additional, as yet unidentified, genes along the X chromosome must be involved. The search for these genes in humans is hampered by the lack of candidate genes that map to the X chromosome, the scarcity of patients with fortuitous autosomal translocations, and small pedigrees, which hinder mapping of the loci. In addition, difficulties with human germ cell research also make it challenging to dissect genes important to ovarian development. Autosomal genes also are involved in ovarian differentiation and gonadal failure. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and ataxia telangiectasia are examples of autosomal genes known to cause human ovarian failure. Transgenic mouse models point to many other candidate autosomal genes, and sequencing of the human homologues in affected women should lead to the discovery of new genes responsible for human ovarian failure. Identification, functional analysis, and mapping of novel genes specifically expressed in the ovary of mice and women eventually should lead to fruitful dissection of essential genes in mammalian ovarian development and maintenance. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Semin. Med. Genet.) 89:186–200, 1999. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics 12/1999; 89(4):186 - 200.
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ABSTRACT: Women with Turner's syndrome, the majority of whom are estrogen deficient, have an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on central arterial hemodynamics, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in adults with Turner's syndrome. Twenty-one women with Turner's syndrome were studied prospectively, on and off 3 months of estradiol valerate in combination with levonorgestrel. The following measurements were made: body mass index, waist/hip ratio, serum lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. Aortic root pressure and waveforms were estimated noninvasively and the augmentation index (AI), a measure of aortic stiffness, was calculated. The AI was significantly lower during estrogen therapy (22% vs. 15%; P = 0.008), suggesting a reduction in central arterial stiffness. Fasting insulin and glucose concentrations were also significantly lower during HRT (P = 0.01 and P = 0.0004, respectively). There was no difference in body mass index, serum lipids, or brachial and aortic blood pressures on and off treatment. Total cholesterol was correlated with the AI (r = 0.4; P = 0.03). These results suggest that HRT in women with Turner's syndrome has a favorable effect on central arterial hemodynamics and insulin sensitivity. The lack of effect on serum lipids suggests that the effects of HRT on aortic compliance may be mediated by an improvement in endothelial function.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 03/2000; 85(2):614-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor