Selective elimination of hepatic natural killer T cells with concanavalin A improves liver regeneration in mice.
ABSTRACT Although concanavalin A (Con A) as a T cell stimulant can cause natural killer T (NKT) cell-mediated liver injury in mice and a nonhepatotoxic dose of Con A can trigger innate immune cells including NKT cells to prevent tumor metastasis in the liver, little is known about the role of Con A-primed NKT cells in liver repair. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of pretreatment with a nontoxic dose of Con A on subsequent liver regeneration in mice.
A nontoxic dose of Con A was injected intravenously 24 h before partial hepatectomy (PHx), which was used as a model of liver regeneration. Ratios of remnant liver mass to body weight, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling were used to assess liver regeneration.
Hepatic mononuclear cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. After PHx, the ratios of liver weight to body weight, PCNA-positive hepatocytes and BrdU-positive hepatocytes in Con A-pretreated mice were significantly higher than that of phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice, indicating that Con A pretreatment can accelerate liver regeneration. Flow cytometric analysis showed that NKT cells were significantly activated and selectively eliminated after the Con A administration. Moreover, NKT cells expressed more apoptosis-related molecules, Fas and Annexin V.
Taken together, Con A accelerates liver regeneration in mice by eliminating hepatic NKT cells via activation-induced cell death.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability of the liver to regenerate hepatic mass is essential to withstanding liver injury. The process of liver regeneration is tightly regulated by distinct signaling cascades involving components of the innate immune system, cytokines, and growth factors. However, the role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of liver regeneration is not well-defined. The role of adaptive immune system in liver regeneration was investigated in lymphocyte-deficient mice and in conditional lymphotoxin-deficient mice. A model of liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy was used, followed by examination of liver pathology, survival, DNA synthesis, and cytokine expression. We found that mice deficient in T cells show a reduced capacity for liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. Furthermore, surface lymphotoxin, provided by T cells, is critical for liver regeneration. Mice specifically deficient in T-cell lymphotoxin had increased liver damage and a reduced capacity to initiate DNA synthesis after partial hepatectomy. Transfer of splenocytes from wild-type but not lymphotoxin-deficient mice improved liver regeneration in T cell-deficient mice. We found that an agonistic antibody against the lymphotoxin beta receptor was able to facilitate liver regeneration by reducing liver injury, increasing interleukin-6 production, hepatocyte DNA synthesis, and survival of lymphocyte-deficient (Rag) mice after partial hepatectomy. The adaptive immune system directly regulates liver regeneration via a T cell-derived lymphotoxin axis, and pharmacological stimulation of lymphotoxin beta receptor might represent a novel therapeutic approach to improve liver regeneration.Gastroenterology 09/2008; 136(2):694-704.e4. · 11.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For predominant abundance with liver-specific Kupffer cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells and their rapid responses to several stimuli, the liver is considered as an organ with innate immune features. In contrast to their roles in the defense of many infectious agents like hepatitis viruses and parasites, hepatic innate immune cells are also involved in the immunopathogenesis of human clinical liver diseases and several murine hepatitis models such as concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C)-induced liver injury. In this review, the destructive roles of NK cells, NKT cells and Kupffer cells in the processes of immune-mediated liver injury and regeneration will be discussed, and some putative mechanisms involving the impairment of liver regeneration caused by activated hepatic innate immune cells are also proposed.Cellular & molecular immunology 09/2007; 4(4):241-52. · 2.99 Impact Factor