Is antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, or stillbirth?
ABSTRACT Data on complications of pregnancy associated with antiretroviral therapy are limited. Some small studies have demonstrated an increased preterm delivery rate, but a recent retrospective United States multisite study did not concur with these findings. Our objective was to investigate whether antiretroviral therapy was associated with adverse pregnancy outcome at a single site.
Using prospectively gathered data, women were identified who were determined to be human immunodeficiency virus positive before or during pregnancy who sought care at our prenatal clinic and who gave birth at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center from 1990 through 2002. The outcome measures were preterm delivery, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
The cohort included 999 women who received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (monotherapy in 492, combination therapy without a protease inhibitor [PI] in 373, and combination therapy with a PI in 134) and 338 women who did not receive therapy. After adjustment for possible confounders, only combination therapy with a PI was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, compared with any other combination (odds ratio, 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.0]). There were no differences in rates of low birth weight and stillbirth, regardless of therapy.
Compared with monotherapy and combination therapy without a PI, only combination therapy with a PI was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. There are few data regarding the tolerability, safety, or efficacy of antenatal atazanavir. We report our clinical experience of atazanavir use in pregnancy. Methods. A retrospective medical records review of atazanavir-exposed pregnancies in 12 London centres between 2004 and 2010. Results. There were 145 pregnancies in 135 women: 89 conceived whilst taking atazanavir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), "preconception" atazanavir exposure; 27 started atazanavir-based cART as "first-line" during the pregnancy; and 29 "switched" to an atazanavir-based regimen from another cART regimen during pregnancy. Gastrointestinal intolerance requiring atazanavir cessation occurred in five pregnancies. Self-limiting, new-onset transaminitis was most common in first-line use, occurring in 11.0%. Atazanavir was commenced in five switch pregnancies in the presence of transaminitis, two of which discontinued atazanavir with persistent transaminitis. HIV-VL < 50 copies/mL was achieved in 89.3% preconception, 56.5% first-line, and 72.0% switch exposures. Singleton preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred in 11.7% preconception, 9.1% first-line, and 7.7% switch exposures. Four infants required phototherapy. There was one mother-to-child transmission in a poorly adherent woman. Conclusions. These data suggest that atazanavir is well tolerated and can be safely prescribed as a component of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; 2014:961375.
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ABSTRACT: Each year over a million infants are born to HIV-infected mothers. With scale up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions, only 210 000 of the 1.3 million infants born to mothers with HIV/AIDS in 2012 became infected. Current programmatic efforts directed at infants born to HIV-infected mothers are primarily focused on decreasing their risk of infection, but an emphasis on maternal interventions has meant follow-up of exposed infants has been poor. Programs are struggling to retain this population in care until the end of exposure, typically at the cessation of breastfeeding, between 12 and 24 months of age. But HIV exposure is a life-long condition that continues to impact the health and well being of a child long after exposure has ended. A better understanding of the impact of HIV on exposed infants is needed and new programs and interventions must take into consideration the long-term health needs of this growing population. The introduction of lifelong treatment for all HIV-infected pregnant women is an opportunity to rethink how we provide services adapted for the long-term retention of mother-infant pairs.AIDS (London, England) 11/2013; 27 Suppl 2:S187-95. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a higher risk for cognitive or language delay among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children exposed to cART (zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir) in utero and through 1 year of breast-feeding (World health Organization Option B+), compared with the control children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.AIDS (London, England) 07/2014; 28 Suppl 3:S323-S330. · 6.56 Impact Factor