Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in Southern Brazil, with notes in their ecology

Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, R. Benedito Conceição, 407, 82810-080 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
Enperimental and Applied Acarology (Impact Factor: 1.62). 02/2003; 31(3-4):283-96. DOI: 10.1023/B:APPA.0000010381.24903.1c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.

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    • "However, since only a few individuals of T. rufiventris were captured (four), it is not possible to relate parasitism quantitatively with the habits of this species. Nevertheless, tick infestation of T. rufiventris is common (Arzua et al. 2003, 2005; Labruna et al. 2007; Luz et al. 2012; Ogrzewalska et al. 2012; Sanches et al. 2013). An exception to the group of families associated with high parasite loads, in Figs. 4 and 5, is the Pipridae, which forages on the understory and midstory but can exhibit anting behavior and mating rituals on the ground as well the species captured in this survey (Sick 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.
    Parasitology Research 08/2015; 114(11). DOI:10.1007/s00436-015-4651-4 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    • "In natural settings adults of A. aureolatum feed mainly on wild carnivore species (Guglielmone et al., 2003; Labruna et al., 2005b). The few host records for tick immature stages refer majorly to passerine birds, mainly the genus Turdus (Arzua et al., 2003; Ogrzewalska et al., 2012) and a few rodent species (Guglielmone et al., 2003). Additionally, a recent study (Ogrzewalska et al., 2012) observed that the BSF-endemic areas in São Paulo metropolitan area differed from the non-endemic areas by the presence of significantly smaller and more degraded forest patches in the former. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 07/2013; 3:27. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2013.00027 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    • "and Myrmecophaga tridactyla L., while subadults seem to feed primarily on birds (Jones et al. 1972; Labruna et al. 2007a). H. juxtakochi seems to be a typical Neotropical deer tick (Szabó et al. 2006), although previous records of immature stages on Passeriformes in southern Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina suggest that birds may also play a role in the life-history of H. juxtakochi (Arzua et al. 2005; Beldomenico et al. 2003; Venzal et al. 2005). Adults of A. coelebs feed primarily on tapirs (Tapirus spp.) (Labruna et al. 2005a), whereas nymphs have been recorded in Brazil on jaguars [Panthera onca L. and Puma concolor (L.)], opossums [Didelphis albiventris (Lund)], peccary [Tayassu tajacu L.], humans (Labruna et al. 2005a, 2005b), and on a few birds with terrestrial habits (Ogrzewalska et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds in a region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon and evaluate the rickettsial infection of these ticks. Wild birds captured by mist nets were examined for the presence of ticks, which were collected and identified to species by morphology or molecular methods. In addition, part of these ticks was individually tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Among 331 captured birds, representing 56 species, 133 individuals (40.2%) from 34 species were found infested by 443 ticks, being Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) the most common (103 larvae, 12 nymphs), followed by Amblyomma humerale Koch (15 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma geayi Neumann (seven larvae, one nymph), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (one larva, four nymphs), Amblyomma coelebs Neumann (two larvae), and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (one larva, two nymphs). Other 285 larvae and 7 nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. The species A. humerale and A. geayi are recorded for first time parasitizing birds in the Neotropical region. Among 67 A. longirostre and 7 A. geayi, 38 (56.7%) and 4 (57.1%), respectively, were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. In spite of R. amblyommii being not currently recognized as human or animal pathogen, there has been serological evidence for human and canine infection by this agent in the USA and in the Brazilian western Amazon.
    Parasitology Research 02/2010; 106(4):809-16. DOI:10.1007/s00436-010-1733-1 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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