Use of human antigen presenting cell gene array profiling to examine the effect of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax on primary human dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia and a progressive demyelinating disorder termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). One of the most striking features of the immune response in HAM/TSP centers on the expansion of HTLV-1-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) compartment in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid. More than 90% of the HTLV-1-specific CTLs are directed against the viral Tax (11-19) peptide implying that Tax is available for immune recognition by antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). DCs obtained from HAM/TSP patients have been shown to be infected with HTLV-1 and exhibit rapid maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that presentation of Tax peptides by activated DCs to naIve CD8(+) T cells may play an important role in the induction of a Tax-specific CTL response and neurologic dysfunction. In this study, a pathway-specific antigen presenting cell gene array was used to study transcriptional changes induced by exposure of monocyte-derived DCs to extracellular HTLV-1 Tax protein. Approximately 100 genes were differentially expressed including genes encoding toll-like receptors, cell surface receptors, proteins involved in antigen uptake and presentation and adhesion molecules. The differential regulation of chemokines and cytokines characteristic of functional DC activation was also observed by the gene array analyses. Furthermore, the expression pattern of signal transduction genes was also significantly altered. These results have suggested that Tax-mediated DC gene regulation might play a critical role in cellular activation and the mechanisms resulting in HTLV-1-induced disease.
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ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has previously been shown to infect antigen-presenting cells and their precursors in vivo. However, the role these important cell populations play in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis or adult T cell leukemia remains unresolved. To better understand how HTLV-1 infection of these important cell populations may potentially impact disease progression, the regulation of HTLV-1 viral gene expression in established monocytic cell lines was examined. U-937 promonocytic cells transiently transfected with a HTLV-1 long-terminal repeat (LTR) luciferase construct were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to induce cellular differentiation. PMA-induced cellular differentiation resulted in activation of basal and Tax-mediated transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift analyses demonstrated that PMA-induced cellular differentiation induced DNA-binding activity of cellular transcription factors to Tax-responsive element 1 (TRE-1) repeat II. Supershift analyses revealed that factors belonging to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of basic region/leucine zipper proteins (Fra-1, Fra-2, JunB, and JunD) were induced to bind to TRE-1 repeat II during cellular differentiation. Inhibition of AP-1 DNA-binding activity by overexpression of a dominant-negative c-Fos mutant (A-Fos) in transient expression analyses resulted in severely decreased levels of HTLV-1 LTR activation in PMA-induced U-937 cells. These results have suggested that following infection of peripheral blood monocytes, HTLV-1 viral gene expression may become up-regulated by AP-1 during differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 10/2006; 80(3):640-50. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human immune system is under constant challenge from many viruses, some of which the body is successfully able to clear. Other viruses have evolved to escape the host immune responses and thus persist, leading to the development of chronic diseases. Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a major role in both innate and adaptive immunity against different pathogens. This review focuses on the interaction of different chronic viruses with dendritic cells and the viruses' ability to exploit this critical cell type to their advantage so as to establish persistence within the host.International Reviews Of Immunology 10/2011; 30(5-6):341-65. · 5.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been over 25 years since the discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1); however, the exact sequence of events that occur during primary infection, clinical latency or the development of disease remains unresolved. The advances in molecular virology and neuroimmunology have contributed significantly to our understanding of HTLV-1 pathogenesis, but also uncovered the complexity of the virus–host interaction both in the peripheral blood and the CNS. Here, we overview the general pathologic features of HTLV-1, molecular mechanisms of oncogenic transformation and characteristics of the host immune response during the associated neuroinflammatory process. We also discuss both current and new approaches in the diagnosis and therapy of HTLV-1 associated diseases – adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Finally, potentially important emerging areas of research that may have an impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism have been briefly introduced.Future Virology 01/2007; 2:481-493. · 0.96 Impact Factor