High-throughput RNA interference in functional genomics.
ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) refers to post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression as a result of the introduction of double-stranded RNA into cells. The application of RNAi in experimental systems has significantly accelerated elucidation of gene functions. In order to facilitate large-scale functional genomics studies using RNAi, several high-throughput approaches have been developed based on microarray or microwell assays. The recent establishment of large libraries of RNAi reagents combined with a variety of detection assays has further improved the performance of functional genome-wide screens in mammalian cells.
SourceAvailable from: Joerg Schroeder[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A modern concept for the development of novel antiparasitic drugs is the combination of bioinformatics and chemoinformatics approaches. This covers, for example, the identification of target proteins serving as molecular points of attack for parasiticides--the idea is that, owing to some essential role, inhibition of a target protein should eradicate the parasite. To prevent toxicity problems for vertebrate host organisms, it is advantageous that these proteins show significant differences from their vertebrate counterparts. In the present work, we identified potential target proteins in parasitic nematodes (Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, and Haemonchus contortus) and arthropods (Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) using bioinformatic sequence comparison methods on expressed sequence tags. Interesting target proteins (e.g., S-adenosyl-l-methionine synthetase) were characterized in detail by subjecting them to in-depth bioinformatic analysis. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine synthetase was also used to elucidate chemoinformatics approaches like homology modeling and docking, which represent appropriate methods for generating valuable data for the development of new drug candidates.Genomics 02/2007; 89(1):36-43. DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.09.008 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Foods and food components can have positive and/or negative effects on our health, resulting in benefits and risks. At present these are evaluated in largely separated trajectories. In view of assessment, management, and communication, we here propose and argue for an integrated evaluation of risk and benefit of food components and foods. The window of benefit assessment concept is described as a framework to combine thresholds and scores. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and the tolerable upper intake level (UL) delimit the range of intakes that should be considered sufficient to prevent deficiency, while avoiding toxicity. Within these thresholds, two additional thresholds, the lower and upper level of additional benefit (LLAB and ULAB), define the range of intakes that constitute an additional benefit. Intake within these limits should thus be protective against a specified health or nutritional risk of public health relevance. To faithfully predict outcomes and to obtain the tools that are necessary to support scientific valid evaluations, a mechanism based systems biology understanding of the effects of foods and nutrients is seen as the way forward. Ultimately this should lead to an integrated risk-benefit assessment, which will allow better management and, especially, communication, to the benefit of the consumer.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 09/2009; 49(7):670-80. DOI:10.1080/10408390802145401 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NOx-catalyzed oxidation of methane without any solid catalyst has been investigated, hydrogen selectivity of 27% has been obtained with an overall methane conversion of 34% and a free O2 concentration of 1.7% at 700 °C.Studies in surface science and catalysis 01/2004; 147:109-114. DOI:10.1016/S0167-2991(04)80036-3