Regulation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling.
ABSTRACT The Kiss1 gene codes for a family of peptides that act as endogenous ligands for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Spontaneous mutations or targeted deletions of GPR54 in man and mice produce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. Centrally administered kisspeptins stimulate gonadotropin secretion by acting directly on GnRH neurons. Sex steroids regulate the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the brain through direct action on KiSS-1 neurons. In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), sex steroids inhibit the expression of KiSS-1, suggesting that these neurons serve as a conduit for the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion. In the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), sex steroids induce the expression of KiSS-1, implying that KiSS-1 neurons in this region may have a role in the preovulatory LH surge (in the female) or sexual behavior (in the male).
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ABSTRACT: Deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to provide an in-depth view of the transcriptome of red and white skeletal muscle of exercised and non-exercised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the specific objective to identify expressed genes and quantify the transcriptomic effects of swimming-induced exercise. Pubertal autumn-spawning seawater-raised female rainbow trout were rested (n = 10) or swum (n = 10) for 1176 km at 0.75 body-lengths per second in a 6,000-L swim-flume under reproductive conditions for 40 days. Red and white muscle RNA of exercised and non-exercised fish (4 lanes) was sequenced and resulted in 15-17 million reads per lane that, after de novo assembly, yielded 149,159 red and 118,572 white muscle contigs. Most contigs were annotated using an iterative homology search strategy against salmonid ESTs, the zebrafish Danio rerio genome and general Metazoan genes. When selecting for large contigs (>500 nucleotides), a number of novel rainbow trout gene sequences were identified in this study: 1,085 and 1,228 novel gene sequences for red and white muscle, respectively, which included a number of important molecules for skeletal muscle function. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that sustained swimming increased transcriptional activity in skeletal muscle and specifically an up-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth and developmental processes in white muscle. The unique collection of transcripts will contribute to our understanding of red and white muscle physiology, specifically during the long-term reproductive migration of salmonids.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53171. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Influence of ERβ selective agonism during the neonatal period on the sexual differentiation of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characterize the mechanistic role the beta form of the estrogen receptor (ERβ) plays in this process. To achieve this, we exposed neonatal female rats to three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) of the ERβ selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) using estradiol benzoate (EB) as a positive control. Measures included day of vaginal opening, estrous cycle quality, GnRH and Fos co-localization following ovariectomy and hormone priming, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and quantification of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity. A second set of females was then neonatally exposed to DPN, the ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), DPN+PPT, or EB to compare the impact of ERα and ERβ selective agonism on kisspeptin gene expression in pre- and post-pubescent females. All three DPN doses significantly advanced the day of vaginal opening and induced premature anestrus. GnRH and Fos co-labeling, a marker of GnRH activation, following ovariectomy and hormone priming was reduced by approximately half at all doses; the magnitude of which was not as large as with EB or what we have previously observed with the ERα agonist PPT. LH levels were also correspondingly lower, compared to control females. No impact of DPN was observed on the density of kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir) fibers or cell bodies in the arcuate (ARC) nucleus, and kisspeptin-ir was only significantly reduced by the middle (1 mg/kg) DPN dose in the preoptic region. The second experiment revealed that EB, PPT and the combination of DPN+PPT significantly abrogated preoptic Kiss1 expression at both ages but ARC expression was only reduced by EB. Our results indicate that selective agonism of ERβ is not sufficient to completely achieve male-typical HPG organization observed with EB or an ERα agonist.Biology of sex differences. 01/2012; 3:2.