Perilipin promotes hormone-sensitive lipase-mediated adipocyte lipolysis via phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 07/2006; 281(23):15837-44. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M601097200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the predominant lipase effector of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL-dependent lipolysis in response to catecholamines is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of perilipin A (Peri A), an essential lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein. It is believed that perilipin phosphorylation is essential for the translocation of HSL from the cytosol to the LD, a key event in stimulated lipolysis. Using adipocytes retrovirally engineered from murine embryonic fibroblasts of perilipin null mice (Peri-/- MEF), we demonstrate by cell fractionation and confocal microscopy that up to 50% of cellular HSL is LD-associated in the basal state and that PKA-stimulated HSL translocation is fully supported by adenoviral expression of a mutant perilipin lacking all six PKA sites (Peri Adelta1-6). PKA-stimulated HSL translocation was confirmed in differentiated brown adipocytes from perilipin null mice expressing an adipose-specific Peri Adelta1-6 transgene. Thus, PKA-induced HSL translocation was independent of perilipin phosphorylation. However, Peri Adelta1-6 failed to enhance PKA-stimulated lipolysis in either MEF adipocytes or differentiated brown adipocytes. Thus, the lipolytic action(s) of HSL at the LD surface requires PKA-dependent perilipin phosphorylation. In Peri-/- MEF adipocytes, PKA activation significantly enhanced the amount of HSL that could be cross-linked to and co-immunoprecipitated with ectopic Peri A. Notably, this enhanced cross-linking was blunted in Peri-/- MEF adipocytes expressing Peri Adelta1-6. This suggests that PKA-dependent perilipin phosphorylation facilitates (either direct or indirect) perilipin interaction with LD-associated HSL. These results redefine and expand our understanding of how perilipin regulates HSL-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). The unique thermogenic capacity of BAT results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Based on recent findings that adult humans have functionally active BAT, BAT is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in WAT upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in WAT offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in WAT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 08/2014; · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knowledge regarding lipid catabolism has been of great interest in the field of animal sciences. In the livestock industry, excess fat accretion in meat is costly to the producer and undesirable to the consumer. However, intramuscular fat (marbling) is desirable to enhance carcass and product quality. The manipulation of lipid content to meet the goals of animal production requires an understanding of the detailed mechanisms of lipid catabolism to help meticulously design nutritional, pharmacological, and physiological approaches to regulate fat accretion. The concept of a basic system of lipases and their co-regulators has been identified. The major lipases cleave triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in lipid droplets in a sequential manner. In adipose tissue, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) performs the first and rate-limiting step of TAG breakdown through hydrolysis at the sn-1 position of TAG to release a non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Subsequently, cleavage of DAG occurs via the rate-limiting enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) for DAG catabolism, which is followed by monoglyceride lipase (MGL) for monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolysis. Recent identification of the co-activator (Comparative Gene Identification-58) and inhibitor [G(0)/G(1) Switch Gene 2] of ATGL have helped elucidate this important initial step of TAG breakdown, while also generating more questions. Additionally, the roles of these lipolysis-related enzymes in muscle, liver and skin tissue have also been found to be of great importance for the investigation of systemic lipolytic regulation.
    Journal of Animal Science and Technology. 08/2013; 55(4).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lipolysis involves the sequential breakdown of fatty acids from triacylglycerol and is increased during energy stress such as exercise. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipolysis and perilipin (PLIN) 5 is postulated to be an important regulator of ATGL action of muscle lipolysis. Hence, we hypothesized that non-genomic regulation such as cellular localization and the interaction of these key proteins modulate muscle lipolysis during exercise. PLIN5, ATGL and CGI-58 were highly (>60%) colocated with Oil Red O (ORO) stained lipid droplets. PLIN5 was significantly colocated with ATGL, mitochondria and CGI-58, indicating a close association between the key lipolytic effectors in resting skeletal muscle. The colocation of the lipolytic proteins, their independent association with ORO and the PLIN5/ORO colocation were not altered after 60 min of moderate intensity exercise. Further experiments in cultured human myocytes showed that PLIN5 colocation with ORO or mitochondria is unaffected by pharmacological activation of lipolytic pathways. Together, these data suggest that the major lipolytic proteins are highly expressed at the lipid droplet and colocate in resting skeletal muscle, that their localization and interactions appear to remain unchanged during prolonged exercise, and, accordingly, that other post-translational mechanisms are likely regulators of skeletal muscle lipolysis.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103062. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014