FBN1, TGFBR1, and the Marfan-craniosynostosis/mental retardation disorders revisited
ABSTRACT The recent identification of TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome II (MFSII) [Mizuguchi et al. (2004); Nat Genet 36:855-860] and of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDS) [Loeys et al. (2005); Nat Genet 37:275-281] [OMIM 609192] has provided direct evidence of abnormal signaling in transforming growth factors beta (TGF-beta) in the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome (MFS). In light of this, we describe the phenotypes and genotypes of five individuals. Patient 1 had MFS and abnormal cranial dura. Patient 2 had severe early onset MFS and an abnormal skull. Patients 3 and 4 had probable Furlong syndrome (FS). Patient 5 had marfanoid (MD) features, mental retardation (MR), and a deletion of chromosome 15q21.1q21.3. All patients had a condition within the MFS, MD-craniosynostosis (CS) or MD-MR spectrum. The names of these entities may become redundant, and instead, come to be considered within the spectrum of TGF-beta signaling pathway disorders. Two recurrent heterozygous FBN1 mutations were found in Patients 1 and 2, and an identical novel heterozygous de novo TGFBR1 mutation was found in Patients 3 and 4, in whom altered fibrillin-1 processing was demonstrated previously [Milewicz et al. (2000); Am J Hum Genet 67:279]. A heterozygous FBN1 deletion was found in Patient 5. These findings support the notion that perturbation of extracellular matrix homeostasis and/or remodeling caused by abnormal TGF-beta signaling is the core pathogenetic mechanism in MFS and related entities including the MD-CS syndromes.
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ABSTRACT: 2. The history of diagnosing Marfan syndrome 3. The FBN1 gene 4. Overview of literature 5. Different types of FBN1 mutations 6. Conclusion 7. Expert opinion Introduction: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder with highly variable features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. MFS is generally caused by one of the 2900-plus described different genetic mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Areas covered: By revising the Ghent criteria in 2010, more weight has been given to genetic testing in the diagnosis of MFS. We provide an overview of correlations between different mutation types and clinical MFS features by using the Universal Mutation Database (UMD). Expert opinion: In this paper, we classified FBN1 mutations based on their action on DNA level and we found the following genotype--phenotype corre-lations: i) cysteine mutations are associated with ectopia lentis; ii) introduc-tion of a cysteine leads to less severe involvement of cardiovascular and skeletal system; iii) whole gene deletions and premature termination codon (PTC) mutations are associated with increased skeletal and cardiovascular involvement, but lower prevalence of ectopia lentis and iv) intronic mutations lead to MFS by exon skipping, small insertions/deletions and PTC mutations. Classification based on mutation effect at protein level (reduced vs truncated/deformed fibrillin-1) may partly explain genotype--phenotype asso-ciation and warrants further investigation for individualized prognosis and treatment.08/2014; 2(10). DOI:10.1517/21678707.2014.950223
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an uncommon clinical entity. Heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD), such as Marfan syndrome, are frequently implicated as an underlying cause, due to dural structural weaknesses that predispose patients to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Due to the high prevalence of multi-system disease in HCTD, diagnosis and treatment are often complicated. We present a 58-year-old female with Marfan syndrome on anticoagulation for a mechanical aortic valve replacement who came to medical attention with severe, acute-onset headache following a straining episode. Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) myelography confirmed thoracic CSF extravasations and multiple lumbar diverticula. The patient was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved. We discuss the common presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for spontaneous CSF leaks in patients with Marfan syndrome or related HCTD with an emphasis on noninvasive modalities and a review of the major radiographic criteria used to diagnose dural abnormalities, such as dural ectasia.Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5:8. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.125629 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth factors play important roles in synapse formation. Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases suggest that defects in synaptogenic growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways can lead to disordered neural development and various behavioral phenotypes, including anxiety, memory problems, and social deficits. Genetic association studies in humans have found evidence for similar relationships between growth factor signaling pathways and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Accumulating data suggest that dysfunction in neuronal circuitry, caused by defects in growth factor-mediated synapse formation, contributes to the susceptibility to multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, autism, and disorders of thought and mood (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively). In this review, we will focus on how specific synaptogenic growth factors and their downstream signaling pathways might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases.Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience 03/2014; 6:4. DOI:10.3389/fnsyn.2014.00004