Article

Familial Autoimmune Thyroid Disease as a Risk Factor for Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A CPEA Study

Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio 45229-3039, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 05/2006; 36(3):317-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-005-0071-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A multicenter study of 308 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was conducted through the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to compare the family history of autoimmune disorders in children with ASD with and without a history of regression. A history of regression was determined from the results of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Family history of autoimmune disorders was obtained by telephone interview. Regression was significantly associated with a family history of autoimmune disorders (adjusted OR=1.89; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.10). The only specific autoimmune disorder found to be associated with regression was autoimmune thyroid disease (adjusted OR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.41).

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    • "This was first documented in case reports [20] and later confirmed in comprehensive epidemiological studies for approximately 40% of children with autism [21] [22]. In particular an association with autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism [23], rheumatic fever [24], rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, family history of type 1 diabetes has been found [22] [25]. Some have suggested that these findings support further research into the possibility of an autoimmune component in ASD because, in general, in autoimmune diseases there is a higher prevalence of a family history of autoimmune disease. "
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    • "Trajectories of development that cannot be characterized as delayed but are clearly atypical turn out to be relatively rare and presumably imply more radical differences in the underlying neural constraints. Developmental regression is amongst the most atypical patterns observed, and its causes are currently unknown (Baird et al., 2008; Molloy et al., 2006). The inspiration for the current model was a recent hypothesis by Pickles et al. (2009) that pertained to regression in the form of loss of language in the early development of children with autism. "
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    Psychological Review 08/2011; 118(4):637-54. DOI:10.1037/a0025234 · 7.72 Impact Factor
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    • "j.bbi.2010.09.002 2010) supporting a potential role for abnormal immune dysfunction in ASD. Moreover, associations with maternal autoimmunity (Comi et al., 1999; Croen et al., 2005; Molloy et al., 2006; Atladóttir et al., 2009) or maternal diagnosis of allergy/asthma in the second trimester of pregnancy (Croen et al., 2005) and an ASD diagnosis in the offspring, suggests that inappropriate maternal immune responses may alter the course of immune and neurodevelopment. "
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