Discovery of natural atypical nonhemolytic Listeria seeligeri isolates.

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Office of Vaccine Research and Review, Division of Viral Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, HFM-470, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 05/2006; 72(4):2439-48. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.4.2439-2448.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We found seven Listeria isolates, initially identified as isolates with the Xyl(+) Rha(-) biotype of Listeria welshimeri by phenotypic tests, which exhibited discrepant genotypic properties in a well-validated Listeria species identification oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray gives results of these seven isolates being atypical hly-negative L. seeligeri isolates, not L. welshimeri isolates. The aberrant L. seeligeri isolates were d-xylose fermentation positive, l-rhamnose fermentation negative (Xyl(+) Rha(-)), and nonhemolytic on blood agar and in the CAMP test with both Staphylococcus aureus (S(-) reaction) and Rhodococcus equi (R(-) reaction). All genes of the prfA cluster of L. seeligeri, located in the prs-ldh region, including the orfA2, orfD, prfA, orfE, plcA, hly, orfK, mpl, actA, dplcB, plcB, orfH, orfX, orfI, orfP, orfB, and orfA genes, were checked by PCR and direct sequencing for evidence of their presence in the atypical isolates. The prs-prfA cluster-ldh region of the L. seeligeri isolates was approximately threefold shorter due to the loss of orfD, prfA, orfE, plcA, hly, orfK, mpl, actA, dplcB, plcB, orfH, orfX, and orfI. The genetic map order of the cluster genes of all the atypical L. seeligeri isolates was prs-orfA2-orfP-orfB-orfA-ldh, which was comparable to the similar region in L. welshimeri, with the exception of the presence of orfA2. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 17 housekeeping genes indicated an L. seeligeri genomic background in all seven of the atypical hly-negative L. seeligeri isolates. Thus, the novel biotype of Xyl(+) Rha(-) Hly(-) L. seeligeri strains can only be distinguished from Xyl(+) Rha(-) L. welshimeri strains genotypically, not phenotypically. In contrast, the Rha(+) Xyl(+) biotype of L. welshimeri would not present an identification issue.

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    ABSTRACT: A total of 442 Listeria isolates, including 234 Listeria seeligeri, 80 L. monocytogenes, 74 L. welshimeri, 50 L. innocua, and 4 L. marthii isolates, were obtained from 1,805 soil, water, and other environmental samples collected over 2 years from four urban areas and four areas representing natural environments. Listeria spp. showed similar prevalences in samples from natural (23.4%) and urban (22.3%) environments. While L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were significantly associated with natural environments (P ≤ 0.0001), L. innocua and L. monocytogenes were significantly associated with urban environments (P ≤ 0.0001). Sequencing of sigB for all isolates revealed 67 allelic types with a higher level of allelic diversity among isolates from urban environments. Some Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types showed significant associations with specific urban and natural areas. Nearest-neighbor analyses also showed that certain Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types were spatially clustered within both natural and urban environments, and there was evidence that these species and allelic types persisted over time in specific areas. Our data show that members of the genus Listeria not only are common in urban and natural environments but also show species- and subtype-specific associations with different environments and areas. This indicates that Listeria species and subtypes within these species may show distinct ecological preferences, which suggests (i) that molecular source-tracking approaches can be developed for Listeria and (ii) that detection of some Listeria species may not be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 04/2012; 78(12):4420-33. DOI:10.1128/AEM.00282-12 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The atypical hemolytic Listeria innocua strains PRL/NW 15B95 and J1-023 were previously shown to contain gene clusters analogous to the pathogenicity island (LIPI-1) present in the related foodborne gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis. LIPI-1 includes the hemo- lysin gene, thus explaining the hemolytic activity of the atypical L. innocua strains. No other L. monocytogenes- specific virulence genes were found to be present. In order to investigate whether any other specific L. monocytogenes genes could be identified, a global approach using a Listeria biodiversity DNA array was applied. According to the hybridization results, the isolates were defined as L. innocua strains containing LIPI-1. Surprisingly, evidence for the presence of the L. monocytogenes-specific inlA gene, previously thought to be absent, was obtained. The inlA gene codes for the InlA protein which enables bacterial entry into some nonprofessional phagocytic cells. PCR and sequence analysis of this region revealed that the flanking genes of the inlA gene at the upstream, 5-end region were similar to genes found in L. monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates, whereas the organization of the downstream, 3-end region was similar to that typical of L. innocua. Sequencing of the inlA region identified a small stretch reminiscent of the inlB gene of L. monocytogenes. The presence of two clusters of L. monocytogenes-specific genes makes it unlikely that PRL/NW 15B95 and J1-023 are L. innocua strains altered by horizontal transfer. It is more likely that they are distinct relics of the evolution of L. innocua from an ancestral L. monocytogenes, as postulated by others. Listeria innocua is a species that is ubiquitously distributed in the natural environment, and unlike L. monocytogenes, repre- sents an example of a nonharmful, nonhemolytic saprophytic Listeria sp. L. innocua has been isolated from a variety of environmental sources, including surface water, soil, sewage, vegetation, and food-processing plants. According to current knowledge, L. innocua does not carry the virulence-associated genes or clusters present and described in the genomes of the pathogenic Listeria species, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. However, several unusual L. monocytogenes-like hemolytic L. innocua strains were isolated and phenotypically and geneti- cally characterized (19). An example is the food isolate PRL/NW 15B95, a naturally but atypically hemolytic L. in- nocua strain (19). We have shown previously that this L. in- nocua strain contains the L. monocytogenes PrfA-regulated pathogenicity island 1 (LIPI-1) gene cluster. LIPI-1 of strain PRL/NW 15B95 is inserted in a background in which L. in- nocua genes preponderate. The initial characterization of this strain did not allow a definitive conclusion about how it evolved, although the results indicated horizontal transfer of this island, as other, non-LIPI-1 genes of L. monocytogenes were absent. Thus, importation of the cluster into an ancestral L. innocua strain rather than vertical evolution of the strain from a common ancestor of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 03/2007; 29(6). DOI:10.1016/S0924-8579(07)70433-8 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Listeria consists of a closely related group of Gram-positive bacteria that commonly occur in the environment and demonstrate varied pathogenic potential. Of the 10 species identified to date, L. monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen of both humans and animals, L. ivanovii mainly infects ungulates (eg., sheep and cattle), while other species (L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, L. grayi, L. marthii, L. rocourtiae, L. fleischmannii and L. weihenstephanensis) are essentially saprophytes. Within the species of L. monocytogenes, several serovars (e.g., 4b, 1/2a, 1/2b and 1/2c) are highly pathogenic and account for a majority of clinical isolations. Due to their close morphological, biological, biochemical and genetic similarities, laboratory identification of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria organisms is technically challenging. With the development and application of various molecular approaches, accurate and rapid discrimination of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria organisms, as well as pathogenic and nonpathogenic L. monocytogenes strains, has become possible.
    Microbiology Insights 01/2013; 6:59-69. DOI:10.4137/MBI.S10880


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