Seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of human T-Cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors from Dakar, Senegal.

Unité d'Epidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, Département Ecosytèmes et Epidémiologie des Maladies Infectieuses, Batiment Lwoff, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 Rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 05/2006; 44(4):1550-4. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.44.4.1550-1554.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 2002, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 seroprevalence was 0.16% (8/4,900) in blood donors from Dakar, Senegal. Most of the positive donors originated from the country's southern region. Seven donors were infected by HTLV-1 (of cosmopolitan subtype), and one was infected by HTLV-2. These data highlight the problem of transfusion safety in this area where HTLV-1-associated lymphoproliferative and neurological diseases are endemic.

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    ABSTRACT: The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), identified as the first human oncogenic retrovirus 30 years ago, is not an ubiquitous virus. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world, with clusters of high endemicity located often nearby areas where the virus is nearly absent. The main HTLV-1 highly endemic regions are the Southwestern part of Japan, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, the Caribbean area, and foci in Middle East and Australo-Melanesia. The origin of this puzzling geographical or rather ethnic repartition is probably linked to a founder effect in some groups with the persistence of a high viral transmission rate. Despite different socio-economic and cultural environments, the HTLV-1 prevalence increases gradually with age, especially among women in all highly endemic areas. The three modes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother to child, sexual transmission, and transmission with contaminated blood products. Twenty years ago, de Thé and Bomford estimated the total number of HTLV-1 carriers to be 10-20 millions people. At that time, large regions had not been investigated, few population-based studies were available and the assays used for HTLV-1 serology were not enough specific. Despite the fact that there is still a lot of data lacking in large areas of the world and that most of the HTLV-1 studies concern only blood donors, pregnant women, or different selected patients or high-risk groups, we shall try based on the most recent data, to revisit the world distribution and the estimates of the number of HTLV-1 infected persons. Our best estimates range from 5-10 millions HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, these results were based on only approximately 1.5 billion of individuals originating from known HTLV-1 endemic areas with reliable available epidemiological data. Correct estimates in other highly populated regions, such as China, India, the Maghreb, and East Africa, is currently not possible, thus, the current number of HTLV-1 carriers is very probably much higher.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2012; 3:388. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00388 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2014.05.002 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples among blood donors who visited the blood bank/transfusion unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital and Our Lady of Fatima Catholic Hospital, Osogbo between January and July 2008 using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques (ELISA) as described by the manufacturer. Western blotting was used to confirm the serum reactive samples from ELISA. Results: Out of 372 samples analyzed, 14 (3.6%) samples were found to be positive for HTLV-I/II (7 HTLV-I and 7 HTLV-II) while 358 (96.4%) samples were negative after confirmation with Western blotting. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among the blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria was found to be 3.6%. This has major implication for the blood transfusion service in Nigeria. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is need for screening of blood donor for HTLV-I/II in order to rule out this transfusion related infection. Keywords: human T-lymphotropic virus, T-cell leukaemia, myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

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