Fluoride in drinking water and its removal.

Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
Journal of Hazardous Materials (Impact Factor: 4.33). 10/2006; 137(1):456-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.02.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. In this paper, a broad overview of the available technologies for fluoride removal and advantages and limitations of each one have been presented based on literature survey and the experiments conducted in the laboratory with several processes. It has been concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific as per local needs and prevailing conditions as each technology has some limitations and no one process can serve the purpose in diverse conditions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Indian Sub-Continent is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, hosting ∼23% of the global population within only ∼3% of the world's land area. It encompasses some of the world's largest fluvial systems in the world (River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Indus Basins), which hosts some of the highest yielding aquifers in the world. The distribution of usable groundwater in the region varies considerably and the continued availability of safe water from many of these aquifers (e.g. Bengal Basin) is constrained by the presence of natural contaminants. Further, the trans-boundary nature of the aquifers in the Indian Sub-Continent makes groundwater resource a potentially politically sensitive issue, particularly since this region is the largest user of groundwater resources in the world. Indeed, there is considerable concern regarding dwindling well yield and declining groundwater levels, even for the highly productive aquifers. Though irrigation already accounts for >85% of the total ground water extraction of the region, there is a mounting pressure on aquifers for food security of the region. Highly variable precipitation, hydrogeological conditions and predicted, impending climate change effects provide substantial challenges to groundwater management. The observed presence of natural groundwater contaminants together with the growing demand for irrigated food production and predicted climate change further complicate the development of strategies for using groundwater resources sustainably. We provide an introduction and overview of 11 articles, collated in this special issue, which describe the current condition of vulnerable groundwater resources across the Indian Sub-Continent.
    04/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.03.005
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Palamu and Garhwa is located in extreme parts of Jharkhand. The always highlighted groundwater quality problem in this area is Fluoride contamination. A current assessment of problem is done statistically and tried to find out some solution on the basis of current findings. The Groundwater of the Palamu district is very well contaminated with fluoride content for so many years. The residents from different villages have been identified with fluorosis due to consumption of fluoride contaminated groundwater. The Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water in the area and very few people are fed with PHE water supply scheme. Geologically the gneisses and granites are the most predominant rocks of the whole palamu area these rocks have fluoride bearing minerals which are leached out to the groundwater and contribute high fluoride concentration in the groundwater. Total 84 water samples are collected from rural areas of selected blocks and their physical chemical parameters are tested in the laboratory and are statistically analysed too. Fluoride concentration ranges from 0.14 – 6.98 mg/l with an average of 1.1379 mg/l and standard deviation of 0.6927. The 9.993% of samples having fluoride concentration above desirable limit (1 mg/l) and 23.192% samples having fluoride concentration above 1.5 mg/l. Rest of the samples are within desirable limit. To assess the health impact , check for dental and skeletal fluorosis is also done and it is found that the most of the people from Chukru, Bakhari, Kauria and Jorkat villages consume groundwater as their drinking water source which have reportedly high fluoride content in their groundwater and thus morbidity of dental fluorosis is very high in many villages. Dean indices are analysed for fluoride affected villages. It is finally concluded that the area need a sound Fluoride management plan and the removal of fluoride from drinking water is urgent necessity.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fluoride (F-) concentration of Raniganj coal field groundwater varied from 0.20 to 1.67mg/l. The temporal distribution of F-concentration showed that about 90% and 88% of the total samples, having low to moderate F-category were distributed mostly throughout the study area during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Whereas 7% and 12% of the pre and post-monsoon samples, having high F-category and were arranged in a linear trend of NW-SE of the study area. Based on the geospatial analysis of the various geological and hydrochemical datasets, it had been observed that high F-concentration in ground water mainly occurred in Raniganj Formation having a litho-assemblage of feldspathic sandstone/shale/coal and also in the direction of groundwater movement. High F-concentration was mainly associated with Mg-Na-HCO 3. The positive correlation of F-with Na + and K + indicated the source of Fin groundwater to be from weathering of silicate minerals. Further, the groundwater types and increase in Na: Ca values with the increase in F-concentration indicated dissolution of feld-spars which could be attributed to the association of high F-zone with feldspathic sandstones. Mica, forming an important constituent of Raniganj sandstones, which contain fluorine at the OH-sites, might be acted as an important source of Fin groundwater on dissolution. Cation exchange (Na + for Ca 2+) accompanied with anion exchange (OH-for F-) might also be the important processes by which micas and clay minerals might contribute to F-enrichment in groundwater.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014