Stimulant treatment over 5 years: effects on growth.
ABSTRACT Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and 1998 and 1999. Annual height and weight measurements were standardized by age and gender using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts for the United States and reported as z scores. For children taking stimulants throughout the previous school year, dose potency was standardized to methylphenidate in milligrams per kilogram per day. We used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the influence of dose and duration of stimulant treatment on the rate of growth in height and weight.
Controlling for time since initiation of treatment, daily dose of stimulant medication was negatively associated with z scores for height (beta = -.11, SE = 0.03, p <.01) and for weight (beta = -.29, SE = 0.04, p <.01). Estimates based on the statistical model suggest that children receiving > or = 1.5 mg/kg/day methylphenidate will show diminished weight gain after 1 year; those receiving > or = 2.5 mg/kg/day methylphenidate will show diminished gains in height after 4 years.
Long-term use of high doses of stimulants during a period of 1 to 5 years is likely to have measurable effects on the rate of growth in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Mazindol has been proposed as a potential treatment of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess its pharmacokinetics, short-term efficacy, and safety. A total of 24 children (aged 9-12 years) with ADHD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text-revision criteria) received a daily dose of 1 mg for 7 days and were followed for 3 additional weeks. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected after the first administration. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale (RS)-IV, Conners' Parent Rating Scale - Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L) at screening, baseline, and the end of the study. The Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) scale was assessed at baseline, and the CGI - Improvement (CGI-I) scale was assessed at subsequent visits. Twenty-one subjects (aged 10±1 years) were analyzed. Pharmacokinetic data were described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption, elimination, and lag time. The typical apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution were 27.9 L/h and 234 L, and increased with fat-free mass and age, respectively. The mean change in score in ADHD RS-IV after 1 week of mazindol was -24.1 (P<0.0001), greater than a 90% improvement from baseline. Reduction of CPRS-R:L and CGI-S scores were -52.1 (P<0.0001) and -2.5 (P<0.01), respectively. Adverse events were mild to moderate, decreased appetite and upper abdominal pain being the most common. This preliminary study shows that mazindol might be an effective, well-tolerated, and long-acting (more than 8 hours) agent for the treatment of ADHD in children.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2321-2332. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing concern that stimulant medications may adversely affect growth. In a sample of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases and controls from a population-based birth cohort, we assessed growth and the association between stimulant treatment and growth. METHODS: Subjects included childhood ADHD cases (N = 340) and controls (N = 680) from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort (N = 5718). Height and stimulant treatment information were abstracted from medical records and obtained during a prospective, adult follow-up study. For each subject, a parametric penalized spline smoothing method modeled height over time, and the corresponding height velocity was calculated as the first derivative. Peak height velocity (PHV) age and magnitude were estimated from the velocity curves. Among stimulant-treated ADHD cases, we analyzed height Z scores at the beginning, at the end, and 24 months after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Neither ADHD itself nor treatment with stimulants was associated with differences in magnitude of PHV or final adult height. Among boys treated with stimulants, there was a positive correlation between duration of stimulant usage before PHV and age at PHV (r = 0.21, P = .01). There was no significant correlation between duration of treatment and change in height Z scores (r = -0.08 for beginning vs end change, r = 0.01 for end vs 24 months later change). Among the 59 ADHD cases treated for >= 3 years, there was a clinically insignificant decrease in mean Z score from beginning (0.48) to end (0.33) of treatment (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ADHD treatment with stimulant medication is not associated with differences in adult height or significant changes in growth.Pediatrics 09/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-0428 · 5.30 Impact Factor
- 10/2011; 18(4):153-167. DOI:10.1016/j.psiq.2011.10.008