Interaction and comparison of a class I hydrophobin from Schizophyllum commune and class II hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei.
ABSTRACT Hydrophobins fulfill a wide spectrum of functions in fungal growth and development. These proteins self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic membranes. Hydrophobins are divided into two classes based on their hydropathy patterns and solubility. We show here that the properties of the class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII of Trichoderma reesei differ from those of the class I hydrophobin SC3 of Schizophyllum commune. In contrast to SC3, self-assembly of HFBI and HFBII at the water-air interface was neither accompanied by a change in secondary structure nor by a change in ultrastructure. Moreover, maximal lowering of the water surface tension was obtained instantly or took several minutes in the case of HFBII and HFBI, respectively. In contrast, it took several hours in the case of SC3. Oil emulsions prepared with HFBI and SC3 were more stable than those of HFBII, and HFBI and SC3 also interacted more strongly with the hydrophobic Teflon surface making it wettable. Yet, the HFBI coating did not resist treatment with hot detergent, while that of SC3 remained unaffected. Interaction of all the hydrophobins with Teflon was accompanied with a change in the circular dichroism spectra, indicating the formation of an alpha-helical structure. HFBI and HFBII did not affect self-assembly of the class I hydrophobin SC3 of S. commune and vice versa. However, precipitation of SC3 was reduced by the class II hydrophobins, indicating interaction between the assemblies of both classes of hydrophobins.
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ABSTRACT: The most common sequences of peptaibiotics are 11-residue peptaibols found widely distributed in the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Frequently associated are 14-residue peptaibols sharing partial sequence identity. Genome sequencing projects of three Trichoderma strains of the major clades reveal the presence of up to three types of nonribosomal peptide synthetases with 7, 14, or 18-20 amino acid-adding modules. Here, we provide evidence that the 14-module NRPS type found in T. virens, T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), and T. atroviride produces both 11- and 14-residue peptaibols based on the disruption of the respective NRPS gene of T. reesei, and bioinformatic analysis of their amino acid-activating domains and modules. The sequences of these peptides may be predicted from the gene sequences and have been confirmed by analysis of families of 11- and 14-residue peptaibols from the strain 618, termed hypojecorins A (23 sequences determined, 4 new) and B (3 sequences determined, 2 new), and the recently established trichovirins A from T. virens. The distribution of 11- and 14-residue products is strain-specific and depends on growth conditions as well. Possible mechanisms of module skipping are discussed.Chemistry & Biodiversity 03/2012; 9(3):499-535. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, (125)I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.Nanoscale 04/2012; 4(10):3184-92. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, can be functionalised and/or recycled via hydrolysis by microbial cutinases. The rate of hydrolysis is however low. Here we tested whether hydrophobins (HFBs), small secreted fungal proteins containing eight positionally conserved cysteine residues, are able to enhance the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of PET. Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma have the most proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobin encoding genes among fungi. To this end, we studied two novel class II HFBs (HFB4 and HFB7) of Trichoderma. HFB4 and HFB7, produced in E. coli as fusions to the C-terminus of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), exhibited subtle structural differences reflected in hydrophobicity plots which correlated with unequal hydrophobicity and hydrophily, respectively, of particular amino acid residues. Both proteins exhibited a dosage-dependent stimulation effect on PET hydrolysis by cutinase from Humicola insolens with HFB4 displaying an adsorption isotherm-like behaviour, whereas HFB7 was active only at very low concentrations and behaved inhibitory beyond them. We conclude that class II HFBs can stimulate the activity of cutinases on PET, but individual HFBs can display different properties. The present findings will contribute to further exploitation of hydrophobins to assist enzymatic hydrolysis of aromatic-aliphatic polyesters like PET.Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor