Interaction and comparison of a class I hydrophobin from Schizophyllum commune and class II hydrophobins from Trichoderma reesei.
ABSTRACT Hydrophobins fulfill a wide spectrum of functions in fungal growth and development. These proteins self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic membranes. Hydrophobins are divided into two classes based on their hydropathy patterns and solubility. We show here that the properties of the class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII of Trichoderma reesei differ from those of the class I hydrophobin SC3 of Schizophyllum commune. In contrast to SC3, self-assembly of HFBI and HFBII at the water-air interface was neither accompanied by a change in secondary structure nor by a change in ultrastructure. Moreover, maximal lowering of the water surface tension was obtained instantly or took several minutes in the case of HFBII and HFBI, respectively. In contrast, it took several hours in the case of SC3. Oil emulsions prepared with HFBI and SC3 were more stable than those of HFBII, and HFBI and SC3 also interacted more strongly with the hydrophobic Teflon surface making it wettable. Yet, the HFBI coating did not resist treatment with hot detergent, while that of SC3 remained unaffected. Interaction of all the hydrophobins with Teflon was accompanied with a change in the circular dichroism spectra, indicating the formation of an alpha-helical structure. HFBI and HFBII did not affect self-assembly of the class I hydrophobin SC3 of S. commune and vice versa. However, precipitation of SC3 was reduced by the class II hydrophobins, indicating interaction between the assemblies of both classes of hydrophobins.
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ABSTRACT: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by fungi and which spontaneously assemble into amphipathic layers at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. We have examined the self-assembly of the Class I hydrophobins EAS∆15 and DewA, the Class II hydrophobin NC2 and an engineered chimeric hydrophobin. These Class I hydrophobins form layers composed of laterally associated fibrils with an underlying amyloid structure. These two Class I hydrophobins, despite showing significant conformational differences in solution, self-assemble to form fibrillar layers with very similar structures and require a hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface to trigger self-assembly. Addition of additives that influence surface tension can be used to manipulate the fine structure of the protein films. The Class II hydrophobin NC2 forms a mesh-like protein network and the engineered chimeric hydrophobin displays two multimeric forms, depending on assembly conditions. When formed on a graphite surface, the fibrillar EAS∆15 layers are resistant to alcohol, acid and basic washes. In contrast, the NC2 Class II monolayers are dissociated by alcohol treatment but are relatively stable towards acid and base washes. The engineered chimeric Class I/II hydrophobin shows increased stability towards alcohol and acid and base washes. Self-assembled hydrophobin films may have extensive applications in biotechnology where biocompatible; amphipathic coatings facilitate the functionalization of nanomaterials.Nanomaterials. 01/2014; 4(3):827-843.
- Biochemical Engineering Journal 07/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor