Prognostic Significance of Residual Breast Disease and Axillary Node Involvement for Patients Who Had Primary Induction Chemotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

Department of General Surgery-Breast Center, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, The Cleveland Clinic Breast Center, 9500 Euclid Avenue, A10, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 06/2006; 13(6):783-7. DOI: 10.1245/ASO.2006.07.024
Source: PubMed


We performed this study to determine the prognostic significance of clinical tumor size, pathologic measurement of residual tumor, and number of positive axillary nodes in the surgical specimen relative to overall survival for patients who underwent primary induction chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer.
Data, collected prospectively between 1997 and 2002, included clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage, age at diagnosis, hormone receptor status, type of preoperative chemotherapy, histological type, surgical procedure, pathologic measurement in centimeters of residual breast tumor, and the number of positive axillary nodes in the surgical specimen. Univariable correlates of residual breast disease were assessed by using the chi2 test. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of clinical tumor size, residual tumor size, and pathologic node involvement relative to overall survival. Survival was estimated by using the method of Kaplan and Meier and compared by using the log-rank test. A P value of <.05 was considered significant.
Data were available for 85 patients with advanced breast cancer. Although univariable analysis identified increasing age, clinically involved axillary nodes, and a higher clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage as predictors of an increased risk of residual disease, recursive partitioning analysis identified more than three involved axillary nodes in the surgical specimen, with or without any measurable residual breast disease, as the most significant predictor of decreased survival (P<.001).
Pathologic axillary node involvement was the most significant predictor of decreased survival for patients who had undergone primary induction chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer.

4 Reads
    • "Therefore, clinical staging may not accurately reflect the extent of disease prior to NAC and may lead to under-or overtreatment with PMRT. Furthermore, other studies have indicated that residual nodal response following NAC plays a larger role in determining LRR risk than initial clinical stage or primary breast tumor response (ypT status) [9] [22]. Patients with complete nodal response to NAC were found to have a very low risk of LRR despite having locally advanced disease initially at presentation [23] [24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and mastectomy, locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates are unclear in women with ER+ tumors treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy without postmastectomy radiation (PMRT). To determine if PMRT is needed in these patients, we compared LRR rates of patients with ER+ tumors (treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy) with women who have non-ER+ tumors. 85 consecutive breast cancer patients (87 breast tumors) treated with NAC and mastectomy without PMRT were reviewed. Patients were divided by residual nodal disease (ypN) status (ypN+ versus ypN0) and then stratified by receptor subtype. Among ypN+ patients (n = 35), five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 5%, 33%, and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02). Among ypN+/ER+ patients, lymphovascular invasion and grade three disease increased the five-year LRR risk to 13% and 11%, respectively. Among ypN0 patients (n = 52), five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 7%, 22%, and 6%, respectively (p = 0.71). In women with ER+ tumors and residual nodal disease, endocrine therapy may be sufficient adjuvant treatment, except in patients with lymphovascular invasion or grade three tumors where PMRT may still be indicated.
    08/2015; 2015(5):147476. DOI:10.1155/2015/147476
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes to TNM staging criteria for breast cancer, introduced in 2003, have resulted in stage re-classification for some tumors. The most frequently implemented change has resulted in tumors associated with more than three positive axillary nodes being upstaged. We hypothesize these TNM staging changes would result in more TNM Stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB tumors and that disease-specific survival estimates would change under the new staging system. A review of data was completed for patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2000. Tumors that would have been staged differently under the 2003 system were identified and re-classified. Clinical outcomes were determined and disease-specific survival estimates were compared relative to TNM Stage using the old and new staging systems. Data were analyzed using the log-rank test and the method of Kaplan and Meier was used to generate survival curves. Data were available for 2492 tumors, of which 919 were candidates for re-classification, including 829 old Stage II, 59 old Stage III, and 31 old Stage IV. Of these 919, 159 (17%) underwent stage re-classification using the new system. Separate survival estimates for patients who had been under old stage IIA/B, IIIA/B were generated; patients upstaged from IIA or IIB demonstrated a significant difference in survival. Stage specific survival curves indicated decreased survival for patients whose tumors had been upstaged from IIA or IIB under the old system; survival for all other patients remained unchanged.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2007; 14(1):143-7. DOI:10.1245/s10434-006-9147-0 · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine wether primary CEF is effective in locally advanced breast cancer, as measured by response, local recurrences, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). From 1990 to 1998, 62 patients with stage III disease were enrolled into a prospective study at Regina Elena Institute for Cancer Research, Rome. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) was included. Patients received three 21 days cycles of chemotherapy that consisted in epirubicin 50 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 8. G-CSF (300 microg) was given subcutaneously every other day from day 5 to day 17. After primary chemotherapy, whenever possible, mastectomy or conservative surgery was performed. Subsequently responding patients received the same regimen, while non responders were given a non cross resistant chemotherapy. In case of conservative surgery or initial T4 tumor radiation therapy was performed at the end of adjuvant chemotherapy. ER positive patients received tamoxifen 20 mg/d for five years. Seven IIIA patients had a median OS of 43 months (C.I. 95%, 31-55) and DFS of 42 months (C.I. 95%, 16-68), while 15 IBC patients had a median OS of 52 months (C.I. 95%, 52-79) and DFS of 27 months (C.I. 95%, 14-39). Forty IIIB non inflammatory breast cancer patients had a median DFS of 87 months (C.I. 95%, 1-175); median OS was not reached. Ten-year OS was 28.6% for stage IIIA, 50.6% for stage IIIB and 36% for IBC. Primary CEF appear to be an effective treatment. In our study we obtained a good local control and interesting long term data of disease free and overall survival.
    La Clinica terapeutica 07/2007; 158(4):331-41. · 0.33 Impact Factor
Show more