Mitochondrial DNA deletions are abundant and cause functional impairment in aged human substantia nigra neurons.
ABSTRACT Using a novel single-molecule PCR approach to quantify the total burden of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules with deletions, we show that a high proportion of individual pigmented neurons in the aged human substantia nigra contain very high levels of mtDNA deletions. Molecules with deletions are largely clonal within each neuron; that is, they originate from a single deleted mtDNA molecule that has expanded clonally. The fraction of mtDNA deletions is significantly higher in cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient neurons than in COX-positive neurons, suggesting that mtDNA deletions may be directly responsible for impaired cellular respiration.
SourceAvailable from: Moon-Yong Cha[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many researchers have reported that oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is increased in several age-related disorders. Damage to mitochondrial constituents and mtDNA can generate additional mitochondrial dysfunction that may result in greater reactive oxygen species production, triggering a circular chain of events. However, the mechanisms underlying this vicious cycle have yet to be fully investigated. In this review, we summarize the relationship of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction with mtDNA mutation in neurodegenerative disorders.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 03/2015; 47(3):e150-. DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.122 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: α-synuclein (α-syn) is one of the genes that when mutated or overexpressed causes Parkinson's Disease (PD). Initially, it was described as a synaptic terminal protein and later was found to be localized at mitochondria. Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) have emerged as a central endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subcellular compartments where key functions of the cell occur. These domains, enriched in cholesterol and anionic phospholipids, are where calcium homeostasis, lipid transfer, and cholesterol metabolism are regulated. Some proteins, related to mitochondrial dynamics and function, are also localized to this area. Several neurodegenerative diseases have shown alterations in MAM functions and resident proteins, including Charcot Marie-Tooth and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have recently reported that MAM function is downregulated in cell and mouse models of PD expressing pathogenic mutations of α-syn. This review focuses on the possible role of α-syn in these cellular domains and the early pathogenic features of PD that could be explained by α-syn-MAM disturbances.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 02/2015; 9:17. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2015.00017 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Aging cell 02/2015; 14(3). DOI:10.1111/acel.12312 · 5.94 Impact Factor