Antiretroviral medications associated with elevated blood pressure among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
ABSTRACT To examine the effect of antiretroviral agents and clinical factors on the development of elevated blood pressure (BP).
Observational cohort study of patients initiating their first HAART regimen. We evaluated mean BP prior to HAART and while receiving HAART in relation to antiretroviral classes and individual agents, and demographic and clinical characteristics including change in body mass index (BMI) while on HAART. We used logistic regression analysis to examine factors associated with elevated BP [> or = 10 mmHg increase in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) or new diagnosis of hypertension].
Among 444 patients who had 4592 BP readings, 95 patients developed elevated SBP (n = 83), elevated DBP (n = 33), or a new diagnosis of hypertension (n = 11) after initiating HAART. In multivariate analysis, patients on lopinavir/ritonavir had the highest risk of developing elevated BP [odds ratio (OR), 2.5; P = 0.03] compared with efavirenz-based regimens. When change in BMI was added to the model, increased BMI was significantly associated with elevated BP (OR, 1.3; P = 0.02), and the association between lopinavir/ritonavir and elevated BP was no longer present. Compared with lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens, patients receiving atazanavir (OR, 0.2; P = 0.03), efavirenz (OR, 0.4; P = 0.02), nelfinavir (OR, 0.3; P = 0.02), or indinavir (OR, 0.3; P = 0.01) had significantly lower odds of developing elevated BP.
Treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir is significantly associated with elevated BP, an effect that appears to be mediated through an increase in BMI. Patients receiving atazanavir were least likely to develop elevated BP. The impact of antiretroviral medications on cardiovascular disease risk factors will increasingly influence treatment decisions.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that HIV infection is independently associated with heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is frequent in HIV patients, but it is unclear whether this is an effect of the HIV infection itself or of the anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Our aim was to compare diastolic function in HIV treatment-naïve, HIV-ART patients and controls. We prospectively enrolled 206 consecutive patients with HIV-1 infection and 30 controls, selected by frequency matching for age and sex. HIV patients were divided in two subgroups: ART-naïve (n = 88) and ART (n = 118). Diastolic function was assessed and graded by echocardiography, according to modern consensus criteria and using tissue Doppler analysis. Compared to controls, ART-naïve patients had lower E' velocities (E' septal: 10.2 ± 2.4 vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.02), higher E/E' ratio (7.8 ± 1.9 vs 6.9 ± 1.6,p = 0.02) and higher prevalence of DD (19 % vs 3.3 %,p = 0.05). HIV patients under ART also had worse diastolic function compared to controls (E' septal: 10.3 ± 2.5 cm/s;p < 0.01; E/E'ratio: 8.0 ± 2.0,p < 0.01; DD prevalence: 23 %;p = 0.01), but no significant differences were found between ART-naïve and ART HIV subgroups. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and body mass index were the only independent predictors of reduced diastolic reserve in HIV patients. Regarding systolic function, there were no significant differences in ejection fraction or S' velocities between controls and HIV subgroups. HIV treatment-naïve patients have reduced diastolic reserve that is not worsened by ART. These data reinforce the association of diastolic dysfunction with the HIV infection itself and not with the anti-retroviral therapy.Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 02/2015; 29(1):31-9. DOI:10.1007/s10557-015-6573-x · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent data show that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could possibly be explained by an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) due to the known toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA) and components of MetSyn in a sample of PLWHA taking ART. A total of 31 males and 32 females living with HIV and currently taking ART were enrolled in a home-based PA intervention aimed to reduce risk factors for CVD. Clinical assessments included measures of resting blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, height, weight, PA levels via accelerometer, and a fasted blood draw. Components of MetSyn were divided into three clusters (1 = 0-1; 2 = 2; 3 = 3 or more). A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between clusters. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify significant associations between moderate intensity PA (MPA) and sedentary time among components of MetSyn. MPA was significantly lower across MetSyn clusters (p < 0.001), whereas sedentary time was significantly higher (p = 0.01). A multiple linear regression showed MPA to be a significant predictor of waist circumference after controlling for age, race, gender, and sedentary time. Routine PA can be beneficial in helping PLWHA reduce waist circumference ultimately leading to metabolic improvements. This in turn would help PLWHA self-manage known components of MetSyn, thus reducing their risk of CVD and mortality.AIDS Care 05/2014; DOI:10.1080/09540121.2014.920075 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC) increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC. Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT), and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs), 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs), 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs), and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs). Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography. Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS) was lower (p < 0.01) in men with metabolic complications (HIV+: 9.2 ± 6.2 vs. HIV-: 10.4 ± 8.1 nmol/g/min/μU/mL) than men without metabolic complications (HIV+: 45.0 ± 33.3 vs. HIV-: 60.3 ± 53.0 nmol/g/min/μU/mL). Lower GLUT/INS was associated with lower myocardial relaxation velocity during early diastole (r = 0.39, p < 0.001). Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin. NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851.Cardiovascular Diabetology 12/2011; 10(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-10-111 · 3.71 Impact Factor