Nationwide survey on acute heart failure in cardiology ward services in Italy.
ABSTRACT Chronic heart failure (HF) is recognized as an important public health problem but little attention has been focused on acute-stage HF.
Nationwide, prospective, observational study setting 206 cardiology centres with intensive cardiac care units. During 3 months, 2807 patients diagnosed as having de novo acute HF (44%) or worsening chronic HF (56%) were enrolled. Acute pulmonary oedema was the presenting clinical feature in 49.6% of patients, cardiogenic shock in 7.7%, and worsened NYHA functional class in 42.7% of cases. Anaemia (Hb<12 g/dL) was present in 46% of patients, renal dysfunction (creatinine > or =1.5 mg%) in 47%, and hyponatraemia (< or =136 mEq/L) in 45%. An ejection fraction (EF)>40% was found in 34% of cases. Intravenous diuretics, nitrates, and inotropes were given to 95, 51, and 25% of patients, respectively. The median duration of hospital stay was 9 days. In-hospital mortality rate was 7.3%. Older age, use of inotropic drugs, elevated troponin, hyponatraemia, anaemia, and elevated blood urea nitrogen were independent predictors of all-cause death; prior revascularization procedures and elevated blood pressure were indicators of a better outcome. The rehospitalization rate within 6 months was 38.1%, all-cause mortality from discharge to 6 months was 12.8%.
Acute HF is an ominous condition, needing more research activity and resources.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate how recommendations of European guidelines regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for heart failure (HF) are adopted in clinical practice. The ESC-HF Long-Term Registry is a prospective, observational study conducted in 211 Cardiology Centres of 21 European and Mediterranean countries, members of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). From May 2011 to April 2013, a total of 12 440 patients were enrolled, 40.5% with acute HF and 59.5% with chronic HF. Intravenous treatments for acute HF were heterogeneously administered, irrespective of guideline recommendations. In chronic HF, with reduced EF, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs) were used in 92.2, 92.7, and 67.0% of patients, respectively. When reasons for non-adherence were considered, the real rate of undertreatment accounted for 3.2, 2.3, and 5.4% of the cases, respectively. About 30% of patients received the target dosage of these drugs, but a documented reason for not achieving the target dosage was reported in almost two-thirds of them. The more relevant reasons for non-implantation of a device, when clinically indicated, were related to doctor uncertainties on the indication, patient refusal, or logistical/cost issues. This pan-European registry shows that, while in patients with acute HF, a large heterogeneity of treatments exists, drug treatment of chronic HF can be considered largely adherent to recommendations of current guidelines, when the reasons for non-adherence are taken into account. Observations regarding the real possibility to adhere fully to current guidelines in daily clinical practice should be seriously considered when clinical practice guidelines have to be written.European Journal of Heart Failure 08/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsIn Western countries with typically elderly ischaemic acute heart failure patients, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction and worsening renal function are well described. However, the prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction in younger, mainly hypertensive acute heart failure patients from Africa, have not been described.Methods and resultsFrom 1006 patients enrolled in the sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF), renal function was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Worsening renal function was defined as an increase in creatinine ≤0.3 mg/dL (26.5 µmol/L) from baseline to day 7/discharge. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 52.4 (18.2) years, 481 (50.8%) were women and the predominant race was black African [932 of 946 (98.5%)]. Heart failure was most commonly a result of hypertension (n = 363, 39.5%) and only 7.8% had ischaemic heart failure. At hospital admission, 289 patients (30.6%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 ml/min.1.73m2. Worsening renal function during hospitalization was detected in 53 (9.8 %) of 543 patients with a follow-up creatinine value, and was independently associated with the Western sub-Saharan region, body mass index, and the presence of rales. Worsening renal function was an independent predictor of death or readmission over 60 days [multivariable hazard ratio = 2.06 (1.10, 3.38); P = 0.023] and all-cause death over 180 days [multivariable hazard ratio =1.92 (1.08, 3.38); P = 0.025].Conclusions Renal dysfunction is also prevalent in younger non-ischaemic acute heart failure patients in Africa, but worsening renal function is less prevalent and has different predictors compared with Western cohorts. Nevertheless, worsening renal function is strongly and independently related with clinical outcome.European Journal of Heart Failure 06/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ALARM-HF was a retrospective, observational registry that included 4,953 patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) in six European countries, Turkey, Mexico and Australia. Data about respiratory disorders and related medications were available for 4,616 patients with AHF. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n = 1,143, 24.8 %) were older and more frequently men (p < 0.001) when compared to non-COPD patients. Despite the equivalent left ventricular ejection fraction (38.6 ± 13.7 vs. 38.2 ± 14.5 %, p > 0.05), COPD patients more frequently presented with acutely decompensated heart failure (p < 0.001). Moreover, a worse cardiovascular profile was observed in the COPD group, including more atrial fibrillation/flutter, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, peripheral vascular disease (p < 0.001). Before admission, a higher percentage of COPD patients had experienced infections (25.0 vs. 14.0 %, p < 0.001), and were more likely to receive diuretics (p = 0.006), ACE inhibitors (p = 0.042), nitrates (p = 0.003), and digoxin (p = 0.034). With the exception of ACE inhibitors, those differences maintained at discharge, with concomitant increase in ARBs prescription (p = 0.01). Notably, β-blockers were less prescribed before admission (21.1 vs. 23.8 %, p = 0.055) in COPD patients, and remained underutilized at discharge (p < 0.001). Correcting for baseline differences, all-cause in-hospital mortality did not differ between COPD and non-COPD groups (10.1 vs. 10.9 %, p = 0.085). A large proportion of AHF patients presented with concomitant COPD, had different clinical characteristics/co-morbidities, and less frequently received evidence-based pharmacological therapy compared to non-COPD patients. However, the in-hospital mortality was not higher in COPD group.Clinical Research in Cardiology 04/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor