A biological filtration process applicable to tertiary treatment of sewage for effective nitrogen removal was developed. It consisted of a nitrification filter (Filter 1) and/or a polishing filter with anoxic and oxic parts (Filter 2). A pilot plant set at a municipal sewage treatment plant was operated for 525 d with feed of real sewage. The maximum apparent nitrification rate in Filter 1 in winter was 0.54 kg N/m3- filter-bed d. In Filter 2, the maximum denitrification capacity was 4 kg N/m3 filter-bed d) in winter. SS was stably removed and high transparency water was obtained. The target water quality (SS, BOD, and T-N5 mg/L) was accomplished in winter with the LV of 202 m/d in Filter 2, which corresponds to 0.24 h of HRT. These results proved that this process is compact, stable, convenient to install, and cost effective to build and operate as tertiary treatment to remove nitrogen effectively.
"Mechanically aerated processes are considered as an attractive alternative to conventional biological processes (Smith and Hardy 1992; Harris et al., 1996; Hidaka and Tsuno, 2004; Jeong et al., 2006) as they provide high treatment capacity with a reduced reactor volume (Harris et al., 1996; Grady et al., 1999; Mendoza-Espinosa and Stephenson 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2003) Consequently, processes 7, 8 and 9 have the least risk of being land constrained. On the contrary, CTFs have inherently large plan areas (Parker and Richards 1986; Pearce and Foster, 1999) due to heavy stone/mineral media with low volumetric loading requirements (Logan et al., 1987b; Metcalf and Eddy, 2003; Daigger and Boltz, 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wastewater industry is under pressure to optimize performance of sewage treatment works (STW), while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. Using a process configuration selection matrix, this paper explores the practicability of placing a hypothetical cross flow structured plastic media (CFSP) trickling filter (TF) immediately ahead of an existing conventional trickling filter process (CTFP), without intermediate clarification. The viability of this configuration is subsequently demonstrated using an empirical multispecies TF model. This predicts the enhanced nitrification performance of the CTFP by simulating prior removals of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The model predictions propose that prior 50-80% BOD removals can allow for further reductions in effluent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations of 40-70%, respectively. This illustrates that adopting low energy TF technologies can eliminate the requirement for more energy intensive alternatives, such as submerged aerated filters (SAF). Moreover, this configuration maximizes the potential of existing assets, while simultaneously improving nitrification robustness when compared with tertiary nitrification processes.
Water Environment Research 01/2015; 87(1-1):80-87. DOI:10.2175/106143014X13975035525988 · 0.87 Impact Factor
"Application of submerged biological filtration to remove residual loads (nutrients, trace elements and pathogens) as a tertiary and/or polishing step can be a promising alternative to retrofitting (Tchobanoglous et al., 2003; Jeong et al., 2006; Schulz and Menningmann, 2008; Farabegoli et al., 2009; Jenssen et al., 2010). Submerged biological aerated filters (BAF), also known as submerged aerobic biofilters (Schulz and Menningmann, 2008) present several advantages over other fixed-film reactors (e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A submerged biologicalaeratedfilter (BAF) partiallyaerated was used to study the removal of lowconcentrations of ammonia nitrogen (0.3 g N/m3 to 30.5 g N/m3) typically found in nutrient enriched river and lake waters, and treated effluents. Four series of experiments were performed with a synthetic wastewater at ammonia loading rates between 6 g N/m3 d and 903 g N/m3 d and C/N ratios from 2 to 20. The results showed that ammonia removal rates reached higher values (172 g N/m3 d to 564 g N/m3 d) for C/N = 2 and lower values (13.6 g N/m3 d to 34.6 g N/m3 d) for C/N = 20. Between 50% and 70% of the ammonia was removed in the upper section of the BAF, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was over 2.1 g O2/m3 and the biofilm depth ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 mm. At the bottom section of the reactor, simultaneous removal of ammonia and nitrate was observed at the DO concentrations in the range 0.4 g O2/m3 to 0.8 g O2/m3. There was no removal of ammonia nitrogen for loads below 15 g N/m3.d. The results indicate that the removal of nitrogen in partiallyaerated BAF may not only be explained by the conventional mechanisms of nitrification/denitrification.
"In recent decades, many advanced technologies for the sewage tertiary treatment were developed. These technologies consisted of continuous-flow sand filtration, membrane filtration   , biological filter , slow sand filtration , electrochemical disinfection  and so on. Coagulation was often used as the pretreatment process of these technologies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to poor removal efficiency of refractory organic compounds, color and total phosphorous (TP) residual in the secondary effluent by the conventional advanced treatment technology, effect of ozone (O3) enhanced coagulation on the treatment of the secondary effluent was investigated in this research. The results showed that ozone could improve the pollutant removal efficiency. After ozonation, the pollutant removal rate by the coagulation and filtration process increased. O3 pre-treatment could extend the operation cycle of the variable void deep filter. In case of O3 dosage of 1.5 mg/L, PAC dosage of 4 mg/L, flocculation time of 15 min and the filter operation cycle of 16 h, the average removal rate of turbidity, COD, UV254, TP and color by the combination of O3 enhanced microflocculation and variable void deep filtration process (combination technology) was 79.0%, 46.5%, 56.6%, 30.8% and 69.2%, respectively, higher than that by the traditional combination of microflocculation and filtration process (traditional technology). In summary, the combination technology is an effective treatment technology in the tertiary treatment of the secondary effluent.
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