Article

Practice Parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

University of Toronto, Canada.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 05/2006; 66(7):996-1002. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000215428.46057.3d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia, depression, and psychosis based on these questions: 1) What tools are effective to screen for depression, psychosis, and dementia in PD? 2) What are effective treatments for depression and psychosis in PD? 3) What are effective treatments for PD dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)?
A nine-member multispecialty committee evaluated available evidence from a structured literature review using MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Health and Psychosocial Instruments from 1966 to 2004. Additional articles were identified by panel members.
The Beck Depression Inventory-I, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale should be considered to screen for depression in PD (Level B). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination should be considered to screen for dementia in PD (Level B). Amitriptyline may be considered to treat depression in PD without dementia (Level C). For psychosis in PD, clozapine should be considered (Level B), quetiapine may be considered (Level C), but olanzapine should not be considered (Level B). Donepezil or rivastigmine should be considered for dementia in PD (Level B) and rivastigmine should be considered for DLB (Level B).
Screening tools are available for depression and dementia in patients with PD, but more specific validated tools are needed. There are no widely used, validated tools for psychosis screening in Parkinson disease (PD). Clozapine successfully treats psychosis in PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors are effective treatments for dementia in PD, but improvement is modest and motor side effects may occur.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
189 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa progresiva de alto impacto para las personas que la sufren y sus familiares. El año 2010 el Ministerio de Salud de Chile la incorporó al sistema de garantías explicitas en Salud, lo que dio origen al desarrollo de las guías clínicas para el manejo de la EP. Un grupo de expertos nacionales realizó una revisión de las guías sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento de la EPpublicadas en la literatura a nivel mundial, con el propósito de evaluarlas y adaptarlas a la realidad chilena.
    Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría. 12/2012; 50(4):255-264.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Although no available therapies alter the underlying neurodegenerative process, symptomatic therapies can improve patient quality of life. To provide an evidence-based review of the initial pharmacological management of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson disease; describe management of medication-related motor complications (such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia), and other medication adverse effects (nausea, psychosis, and impulse control disorders and related behaviors); and discuss the management of selected nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, cognitive impairment, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and sialorrhea. References were identified using searches of PubMed between January 1985 and February 2014 for English-language human studies and the full database of the Cochrane Library. The classification of studies by quality (classes I-IV) was assessed using the levels of evidence guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology and the highest-quality data for each topic. Although levodopa is the most effective medication available for treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease, in certain instances (eg, mild symptoms, tremor as the only or most prominent symptom, aged <60 years) other medications (eg, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors [MAOBIs], amantadine, anticholinergics, β-blockers, or dopamine agonists) may be initiated first to avoid levodopa-related motor complications. Motor fluctuations may be managed by modifying the levodopa dosing regimen or by adding several other medications, such as MAOBIs, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, or dopamine agonists. Impulse control disorders are typically managed by reducing or withdrawing dopaminergic medication, particularly dopamine agonists. Evidence-based management of some nonmotor symptoms is limited by a paucity of high-quality positive studies. Strong evidence supports using levodopa and dopamine agonists for motor symptoms at all stages of Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists and drugs that block dopamine metabolism are effective for motor fluctuations and clozapine is effective for hallucinations. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve symptoms of dementia and antidepressants and pramipexole may improve depression. Evidence supporting other therapies for motor and nonmotor features is less well established.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2014; 311(16):1670-83. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment and dementia pose particular challenges in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Decision-making capacity can render patients vulnerable in a way that requires careful ethical considerations by clinicians with respect to medical decision making, research participation, and public safety. Clinicians should discuss how future decisions will be made as early in the disease course as possible. Because of cognitive, visual, and motor impairments, PD may be associated with unsafe driving, leading to early driving cessation in many. DBS of the STN and, to a lesser degree, globus pallidus interna (GPi) has consistently been associated with decreased verbal fluency, but significant global cognitive decline is usually not observed in patients who undergo rigorous selection. There are some observations suggesting lesser cognitive decline in GPi DBS than STN DBS, but further research is required. Management of PD dementia (PDD) patients involves both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures. Patients with PDD should be offered treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor taking into account expected benefits and potential risks. Treatment with neuroleptics may be necessary to treat psychosis; classical neuroleptics, as well as risperidone and olanzapine, should be avoided. Quetiapine might be considered first-line treatment because it does not need special monitoring, although the strongest evidence for efficacy exists for clozapine. Evidence from randomized, controlled studies in the PDD population is lacking; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may be used to treat depressive features. Clonazepam or melatonin may be useful in the treatment of rapid eye movement behavior disorder. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 04/2014; 29(5). · 5.63 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
10 Downloads
Available from
Aug 29, 2014