Kinjyo, I. et al. Loss of SOCS3 in T helper cells resulted in reduced immune responses and hyperproduction of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor- 1. J. Exp. Med. 203, 1021-1031

Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 05/2006; 203(4):1021-31. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20052333
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 is a major negative feedback regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3-activating cytokines. Transgenic mouse studies indicate that high levels of SOCS3 in T cells result in type 2 T helper cell (Th2) skewing and lead to hypersensitivity to allergic diseases. To define the physiological roles of SOCS3 in T cells, we generated T cell-specific SOCS3 conditional knockout mice. We found that the mice lacking SOCS3 in T cells showed reduced immune responses not only to ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness but also to Leishmania major infection. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient CD4+ T cells produced more transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and interleukin (IL)-10, but less IL-4 than control T cells, suggesting preferential Th3-like differentiation. We found that STAT3 positively regulates TGF-beta1 promoter activity depending on the potential STAT3 binding sites. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that more STAT3 was recruited to the TGF-beta1 promoter in SOCS3-deficient T cells than in control T cells. The activated STAT3 enhanced TGF-beta1 and IL-10 expression in T cells, whereas the dominant-negative form of STAT3 suppressed these. From these findings, we propose that SOCS3 regulates the production of the immunoregulatory cytokines TGF-beta1 and IL-10 through modulating STAT3 activation.

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Available from: Takashi Kobayashi, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Socs3fl/fl lck cre mice showed a worsened disease progression after infection with Leishmania major, which associated to the hyper-production of IL-10 and TGF-β (77). On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing the SOCS3 gene in T cells (Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice) were also susceptible to infection by L. major due to an increased IL-4 secretion (94), altogether suggesting that a tight regulation of SOCS3 expression in T cells is crucial for disease control during infection by L. major. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we describe the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in modulating the outcome of infections and autoimmune diseases as well as the underlying mechanisms. SOCS3 regulates cytokine or hormone signaling usually preventing, but in some cases aggravating, a variety of diseases. A main role of SOCS3 results from its binding to both the JAK kinase and the cytokine receptor, which results in the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Available data also indicate that SOCS3 can regulate signaling via other STATs than STAT3 and also controls cellular pathways unrelated to STAT activation. SOCS3 might either act directly by hampering JAK activation or by mediating the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation of the cytokine/growth factor/hormone receptor. Inflammation and infection stimulate SOCS3 expression in different myeloid and lymphoid cell populations as well as in diverse non-hematopoietic cells. The accumulated data suggest a relevant program coordinated by SOCS3 in different cell populations, devoted to the control of immune homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions such as infection and autoimmunity.
    Frontiers in Immunology 02/2014; 5:58. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00058
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    • "STAT3 regulates the expression of TGF-β and IL-10, crucial cytokines that contribute to the presence of tumor-associated Treg (Kinjyo et al., 2006). Interestingly, tumor-bearing mice with STAT3−/− hematopoietic cells possess a significant reduction in the number of tumor-infiltrating Treg (Kortylewski et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the hallmark features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common adult primary brain tumor with a very dismal prognosis, is the accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) segregate into two primary categories: thymus-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) that develop from the interaction between immature T cells and thymic epithelial stromal cells, and inducible Tregs (iTregs) that arise from the conversion of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) T cells into FoxP3 expressing cells. Normally, these Treg subsets complement one another's actions by maintaining tolerance of self-antigens, thereby suppressing autoimmunity, while also enabling effective immune responses toward non-self-antigens, thus promoting infectious protection. However, Tregs have also been shown to be associated with the promotion of pathological outcomes, including cancer. In the setting of GBM, nTregs appear to be primary players that contribute to immunotherapeutic failure, ultimately leading to tumor progression. Several attempts have been made to therapeutically target these cells with variable levels of success. The blood brain barrier-crossing chemotherapeutics, temozolomide, and cyclophosphamide (CTX), vaccination against the Treg transcriptional regulator, FoxP3, as well as mAbs against Treg-associated cell surface molecules CD25, CTLA-4, and GITR are all different therapeutic approaches under investigation. Contributing to the poor success of past approaches is the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), a tryptophan catabolizing enzyme overexpressed in GBM, and critically involved in regulating tumor-infiltrating Treg levels. Herein, we review the current literature on Tregs in brain cancer, providing a detailed phenotype, causative mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis, and strategies that have been used to target this population, therapeutically.
    Frontiers in Immunology 05/2013; 4:116. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00116
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    • "The role of STAT3 in expression of IL-10 has been confirmed in other cell types and in knock-out mice (Cheng et al., 2003; Herbeuval et al., 2004; Maritano et al., 2004). Recently it was shown that SOCS3 deficiency in murine TCR-stimulated T cells led to increased STAT3 activity and IL-10 expression (Kinjyo et al., 2006) and that constitutive IL-10 expression in T cell lines can be "
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