Estrogen receptor alpha mediates 17alpha-ethynylestradiol causing hepatotoxicity.
ABSTRACT Estrogens are known to cause hepatotoxicity such as intrahepatic cholestasis in susceptible women during pregnancy, after administration of oral contraceptives, or during postmenopausal replacement therapy. Enterohepatic nuclear receptors including farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) are important in maintaining bile acid homeostasis and protecting the liver from bile acid toxicity. However, no nuclear receptor has been implicated in the mechanism for estrogen-induced hepatotoxicity. Here Era(-/-), Erb(-/-), Fxr(-/-), Pxr(-/-), and Car(-/-) mice were employed to show that Era(-/-) mice were resistant to synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by the fact that the EE2-treated Era(-/-) mice developed none of the hepatotoxic phenotypes such as hepatomegaly, elevation in serum bile acids, increase of alkaline phosphatase activity, liver degeneration, and inflammation. Upon EE2 treatment, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) repressed the expression of bile acid and cholesterol transporters (bile salt export pump (BSEP), Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), OATP1, OATP2, ABCG5, and ABCG8) in the liver. Consistently, biliary secretions of both bile acids and cholesterol were markedly decreased in EE2-treated wild-type mice but not in the EE2-treated Era(-/-) mice. In addition, ERalpha up-regulated the expression of CYP7B1 and down-regulated the CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, shifting bile acid synthesis toward the acidic pathway to increase the serum level of beta-muricholic acid. ERbeta, FXR, PXR, and CAR were not involved in regulating the expression of bile acid transporter and biosynthesis enzyme genes following EE2 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that ERalpha-mediated repression of hepatic transporters and alterations of bile acid biosynthesis may contribute to development of the EE2-induced hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: 17Alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), used for birth control in humans, is a potent estrogen that is found in wastewater at low concentrations (ng/l). EE2 has the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of fish, affecting reproduction which can result in population level effects. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary exposure to EE2 would alter gene expression patterns and key pathways in the liver and ovary and whether these could be associated with reproductive endpoints in female largemouth bass during egg development. Female LMB received 70 ng EE2/g feed (administered at 1% of body weight) for 60 days. EE2 dietary exposure significantly reduced plasma vitellogenin concentrations by 70%. Hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices were also decreased with EE2 feeding by 38.5% and 40%, respectively. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that there were more changes in steady state mRNA levels in the liver compared to the ovary. Genes associated with reproduction were differentially expressed, such as vitellogenin in the liver and aromatase in the gonad. In addition, a set of genes related with oxidative stress (e.g. glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were identified as altered in the liver and genes associated with the immune system (e.g. complement component 1, and macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were altered in the gonad. In a follow-up study with 0.2 ng EE2/g feed for 60 days, similar phenotypic and gene expression changes were observed that support these findings with the higher concentrations. This study provides new insights into how dietary exposure to EE2 interferes with endocrine signaling pathways in female LMB during a critical period of reproductive oogenesis.Aquatic Toxicology 11/2014; 156:148–160. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) is a promising non-rodent model in toxicology, and initial studies suggested its applicability in detecting hepatotoxic responses. Here, we hypothesize that the detailed analysis of underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in ZFE contributes to the improved identification of hepatotoxic properties of new compounds and to the reduction of rodents used for screening. ZFEs were exposed to nine reference hepatotoxicants, targeted at induction of cholestasis, steatosis and necrosis, and two non-hepatotoxic controls. Histopathology revealed various specific morphological changes in the ZFE hepatocytes indicative of cell injury. Gene expression profiles of the individual compounds were generated using microarrays. Regulation of single genes and of pathways could be linked to hepatotoxic responses in general, but phenotype-specific responses could not be distinguished. Hepatotoxicity-associated pathways included xenobiotic metabolism and oxidoreduction related pathways. Overall analysis of gene expression identified a limited set of potential biomarkers specific for a common hepatotoxicity response. This set included several cytochrome P450 genes (cyp2k19, cyp4v7, cyp2aa3), genes related to liver development (pklr) and genes important in oxidoreduction processes (zgc:163022, zgc:158614, zgc:101858 and sqrdl). In conclusion, the ZFE model allows for identification of hepatotoxicants, without discrimination into specific phenotypes.Toxicology Letters 07/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxysterols are cholesterol metabolites that serve multiple functions in lipid metabolism, including as liver X receptor (LXR) ligands. 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an abundant oxysterol metabolized by CYP7B1. How 27HC impacts vascular health is unknown. We show that elevations in 27HC via cyp7b1 deletion promote atherosclerosis in apoe(-/-) mice without altering lipid status; furthermore, estrogen-related atheroprotection is attenuated. In wild-type mice, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is increased by 27HC via estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent processes. In monocytes/macrophages, 27HC upregulates proinflammatory genes and increases adhesion via ERα. In endothelial cells, 27HC is also proadhesive via ERα, and in contrast to estrogen, which blunts NF-κB activation, 27HC stimulates NF-κB activation via Erk1,2 and JNK-dependent IκBα degradation. Whereas 27HC administration to apoe(-/-) mice increases atherosclerosis, apoe(-/-);erα(-/-) are unaffected. Thus, 27HC promotes atherosclerosis via proinflammatory processes mediated by ERα, and it attenuates estrogen-related atheroprotection. Strategies to lower 27HC may complement approaches targeting cholesterol to prevent vascular disease.Cell metabolism. 06/2014;