Determining the Size and Shape Dependence of Gold Nanoparticle Uptake into Mammalian Cells

Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9, Canada.
Nano Letters (Impact Factor: 13.59). 05/2006; 6(4):662-8. DOI: 10.1021/nl052396o
Source: PubMed


We investigated the intracellular uptake of different sized and shaped colloidal gold nanoparticles. We showed that kinetics and saturation concentrations are highly dependent upon the physical dimensions of the nanoparticles (e.g., uptake half-life of 14, 50, and 74 nm nanoparticles is 2.10, 1.90, and 2.24 h, respectively). The findings from this study will have implications in the chemical design of nanostructures for biomedical applications (e.g., tuning intracellular delivery rates and amounts by nanoscale dimensions and engineering complex, multifunctional nanostructures for imaging and therapeutics).

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    • "One class of nanoparticle that is commonly used in dietary supplements is metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles including gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and iron oxide [2]. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of these nanomaterials in biological systems are size dependent; therefore, size based characterization is enormously significant for risk assessment [3] [4]. Multiple methodologies are available for size determination of nanoparticles, including dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), capillary electrophoresis and field flow fractionation [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Engineered nanoparticles are available in large numbers of commercial products claiming various health benefits. Nanoparticle absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity in a biological system are dependent on particle size, thus the determination of size and size distribution is essential for full characterization. Number based average size and size distribution is a major parameter for full characterization of the nanoparticle. In the case of polydispersed samples, large numbers of particles are needed to obtain accurate size distribution data. Herein, we report a rapid methodology, demonstrating improved nanoparticle recovery and excellent size resolution, for the characterization of gold nanoparticles in dietary supplements using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation coupled with visible absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A linear relationship between gold nanoparticle size and retention times was observed, and used for characterization of unknown samples. The particle size results from unknown samples were compared to results from traditional size analysis by transmission electron microscopy, and found to have less than a 5% deviation in size for unknown product over the size range from 7 to 30nm.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; 1420. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.091 · 4.17 Impact Factor
    • "ely to be in the form of actual particles rather than dissolved Zn ions . The dependence of particle size on internalisation of particles by cells has been studied [ Win and Feng , 2005 ; Shima et al . , 2013 ] . For a monodisperse system , the max - imum uptake of gold particles or quantum dots occurred at a size of 50 nm [ Osaki et al . , 2004 ; Chithrani et al . , 2006 ] . Obviously our system , with a high degree of ZnO particle agglomeration in supplemented RPMI 1640 medium is very complex . Although we observed the high - est intracellular Zn concentration for ZnO - L with the largest primary particle size , when these intracellular Zn concentrations were converted to particle number concen - trati"
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between particle size and cytogenotoxicity of ZnO particles was systematically studied in vitro using WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cells. Before toxicity measurements, the ZnO particles of three different sizes (26 nm, 78 nm, and 147 nm) were well characterized for their physical and chemical properties to ensure that variations in other properties including surface chemistry and particle shape, which also may influence particle toxicity, were minimal. Cell viability testing showed that increasing cytotoxicity was associated with decreasing particle size. Both the dissolution kinetics of ZnO particles in supplemented cell culture medium and the apparent numbers of ZnO particles internalized by cells were size dependent and showed strong correlation with cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity, as measured by micronucleus formation, was significantly enhanced in the presence of the medium-sized and large-sized particles. The observation that necrosis increased with smaller- sized particles but micronuclei were present to a greater extent with larger- sized particles suggests that different mechanisms of cell damage induction or susceptibilities are operating depending on particle size. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 08/2015; 56(9). DOI:10.1002/em.21962 · 2.63 Impact Factor
    • "The explanation can be applied to GNPs with the fixed number as well, under which condition the uniformity is similar for GNP of all sizes. According to Chithrani et al (2006, 2010), GNP size affects the cell uptake process. The 50 nm-diameter GNP can be absorbed by cell much more easily than GNPs of other size, and sometimes it can reach the similar mass level with the 74 nm-or 100 nm-diameter GNP. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abundant studies have focused on the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the cellular environment with x-ray irradiation. To better understand the physical foundation and to initially study the molecular radiosensitization effect within the nucleus, a simple cell model with detailed DNA structure in the central nucleus was set up and complemented with different distributions of single and multiple GNPs in this work. With the biophysical Monte Carlo simulation code PARTRAC, the radiosensitization effects on both physical quantities and primary biological responses (DNA strand breaks) were simulated. The ratios of results under situations with GNPs compared to those without GNPs were defined as the enhancement factors (EFs). The simulation results show that the presence of GNP can cause a notable enhancement effect on the energy deposition within a few micrometers from the border of GNP. The greatest upshot appears around the border and is mostly dominated by Auger electrons. The enhancement effect on the DNA strand breakage becomes smaller because of the DNA distribution inside the nucleus, and the corresponding EFs are between 1 and 1.5. In the present simulation, multiple GNPs on the nucleus surface, the 60 kVp x-ray spectrum and the diameter of 100 nm are relatively more effective conditions for both physical and biological radiosensitization effects. These results preliminarily indicate that GNP can be a good radiosensitizer in x-ray radiotherapy. Nevertheless, further biological responses (repair process, cell survival, etc) need to be studied to give more accurate evaluation and practical proposal on GNP's application in clinical treatment.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 07/2015; 60(16):6195-6212. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/60/16/6195 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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