Rituximab, an Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody: History and Mechanism of Action

Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 5.68). 06/2006; 6(5 Pt 1):859-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01288.x
Source: PubMed


Rituximab, chimeric anti-human CD20, is approved for treatment of B-cell lymphoma in adults. It is being used experimentally in other various immune-related diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis. In transplant recipients, it is used for treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, to anecdotally reduce pre-formed anti-HLA and anti-ABO antibodies and for the prevention and treatment of acute rejection. This article primarily reviews the science behind rituximab: its history, pharmacokinetics and potential mechanism of action. A need for controlled clinical trials is clearly indicated before the widespread use of this drug in transplant.

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    • "Although mAbs development in China has made significant progress over the past 2 decades [18], all the mABs currently approved by CFDA are technologically outsourced from foreign firms, like Avastin (Roche) [19]. These mAbs mainly target CD20 [20] [21] [22], antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) í µí»¼ [23] [24], VEGFR [25] [26] [27], HER 2 [28] [29], and EGFR [30] [31] for the treatment of cancer or immunological disorders [32]. Recently, 131I-chTNF and humanized mAb h-R3 have been developed and approved as the treatment for solid tumor after Panorex [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become increasingly important as human therapeutic agents. Yet, current research concentrates on technology itself and pays attention to developed countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of mAbs development in China through systematic analysis of drug registry, patent applications, clinical trials, academic publication, and ongoing R&D projects. The trends in therapeutic areas and industrialization process are also highlighted. Development and research trends of mAbs are analyzed to provide a future perspective of mAbs as therapeutic agents in China.
    BioMed Research International 03/2015; 2015:168935. DOI:10.1155/2015/168935 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Apart from its direct impact on the specific elimination of CD20+ B-cells, rituximab appears to exhibit its immunomodulatory functions via nonspecific mechanisms, either through induction of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, as a nonspecific immunoglobulin administered intravenously, or through stimulation of the apoptotic pathway [14, 15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmunity remains a complex physiologic deviation, enabled and perpetuated by a variety of interplayers and pathways. Simplistic approaches, targeting either isolated end-effectors of more centrally placed interactors of these mechanisms, are continuously tried in an effort to comprehend and halt cascades with potential disabling and deleterious effects in the affected individuals. This review focuses on theoretical and clinically proved effects of rituximab-induced CD20+ B cell depletion on different systemic autoimmune diseases and extrapolates on pathogenetic mechanisms that may account for different interindividual or interdisease responses.
    03/2014; 2014:973609. DOI:10.1155/2014/973609
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    • "The target of these radioimmunotherapy agents is the CD20 antigen which is expressed by 490% of the B cell Non Hodgkin 0 s Lymphomas (Press et al., 1989). Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody which is targeted against the CD20 antigen (Pescovitz, 2006). Numerous attempts have been made for developing a radioimmunodiagnostic agent for imaging of CD20 positive cancers which is generally not expressed by other hematopoietic cells (Stopar et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The anti CD20 antibody Rituximab was conjugated with para isothiocyanato benzyl diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (p-NCS-Bz-DTPA) and subsequent radiolabeling with (99m)Tc was carried out via the (99m)Tc carbonyl synthon. The (99m)Tc labeled antibody conjugate exhibited >95% radiochemical purity after purification and retained good in vitro stability when studied up to 24h at room temperature. In vitro cell binding studies carried out in Raji cells expressing CD20 antigen validated the biological efficacy of the preparation.
    Applied radiation and isotopes: including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine 01/2014; 86C:52-56. DOI:10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.12.036 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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