Epidemiology of Candida albicans Infections and Role of Non-Candidaalbicans Yeasts

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Charité Campus Mitte der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Schumannstrabe 20 / 21, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
Current Drug Targets (Impact Factor: 3.02). 05/2006; 7(4):495-504. DOI: 10.2174/138945006776359421
Source: PubMed


Infections of the skin and the mucous membranes due to Candida species may occur either in immuncompromised or in non-immuncompromised patients. This is in contrast to systemic candidiasis (e.g. candidemia) which is only seen in severely immunocompromised patients. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are increasingly recognized in critical ill adult and pediatric individuals, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Candida albicans is the single most common fungal species causing nosocomial infections. However, non-Candida albicans spp., including fluconazole-less-susceptible Candida glabrata, have become more common pathogens. In some patient populations such as hematological (neutropenic) patients Non-C. albicans species are detected much more frequently as compared to non-neutropenic patients in the intensive care. Non-C. albicans species are more likely to occur in patients, who receive or have received antifungal therapy with azoles (e.g. fluconazole). In this review the current epidemiological trends in mucosal and invasive candidiasis are discussed with regard to the role of non-Candida albicans species as the causative agent in immunocompromised patients.

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    • "Increasing numbers of immunocompromised individuals (in association with AIDS, treatments for cancer and immune-related diseases, organ and tissue transplantation, diabetes, premature birth or even advanced age) are at high risk for opportunistic fungal infections, in particular mucosal or systemic candidiasis. Although the majority of fungal infections in humans are caused by Candida albicans, an increasing number are being attributed to other Candida species, in particular C. glabrata (Richardson 2005; Ruhnke 2006; Pfaller et al. 2014). This opportunistic pathogen, formerly classified as Torulopsis glabrata, can be found as a commensal yeast in healthy individuals, and in the environment is found exclusively in association with mammals, which reflects the success of his commensal lifestyle. "
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    ABSTRACT: The emergent pathogen Candida glabrata differs from other yeasts because it assimilates only two sugars, glucose and the disaccharide trehalose. Since rapid identification tests are based on the ability of this yeast to rapidly hydrolyze trehalose, in this work a biochemical and molecular characterization of trehalose catabolism by this yeast was performed. Our results show that C. glabrata consumes and ferments tre-halose, with parameters similar to those observed during glucose fermentation. The presence of glucose in the medium during exponential growth on trehalose revealed extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar by a cell surface acid trehalase with a pH optimum of 4.4. Approximately ∼30% of the total enzymatic activity is secreted into the medium during growth on trehalose or glycerol. The secreted enzyme shows an apparent molecular mass of 275 kDa in its native form, but denaturant gel electrophoresis revealed a protein with ∼130 kDa, which due to its migration pattern and strong binding to concanavalin A, indicates that it is probably a dimeric glycoprotein. The secreted acid trehalase shows high affinity and activity for trehalose, with K m and V max values of 3.4 mM and 80 U (mg protein) −1 , respectively. Cloning of the CgATH1 gene (CAGLOK05137g) from de C. glabrata genome, a gene showing high homology to fungal acid trehalases, allowed trehalose fermentation after heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Microbiological Research 10/2015; 179:12-19. DOI:10.1016/j.micres.2015.06.008 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Yeast of the genus Candida is frequent colonizers of the skin and mucous membranes of animals and are widespread in nature [1]. Candida albicans is considered to be the most important pathogen while others such as Candida parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. dubliniensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii are increasingly being recognized as causes of Candidiasis [2]. The infection is caused by an overgrowth of Candida, a fungus that is normally found in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and vagina, as well as on the skin [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to screen the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from home-made non-sweetened yogurt and three commercially available yogurts against Candida albicans, the significant pathogenic organism causing Candidiasis. The antagonistic properties of the yogurt samples and supernatant of LAB isolates against Candida albicans was performed using agar well diffusion. Ten LAB were isolated and identified as Lactobacillus lactis (5 isolates), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (2 isolates) and Streptococcus thermophilus (3 isolates). The pH ranged between 4.5 and 5.6 while the lactic acid is between 0.119% and 0.219%. The zone of inhibition produced ranged from 6 mm to 13.3 mm with non-sweetened yogurt showing the highest inhibition of 13.3 mm. Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with 9.5 mm, Lactobacillus lactis had 7.5 mm and Lactobacillus bulgaricus with 5.8 mm. The results of this study suggest that the isolates could be used as a treatment against yeast infections.
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    • "Candida albicans is the predominant cause of invasive fungal infections from yeasts (Ruhnke, 2006; Horn et al., 2009). This is the species most frequently isolated from fungal infections. "
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