Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active and stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. Although its etiology is unknown, the accumulation and activation of mononuclear cells in the central nervous system are crucial to its pathogenesis. Chemokines have been proposed to play a major role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes in inflammatory sites. They are divided into subfamilies on the basis of the location of conserved cysteine residues. We determined the levels of some CC and CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 23 relapsing-remitting MS patients under interferon-ss-1a therapy and 16 control subjects using ELISA. MS patients were categorized as having active or stable disease. CXCL10 was significantly increased in the CSF of active MS patients (mean +/- SEM, 369.5 +/- 69.3 pg/mL) when compared with controls (178.5 +/- 29.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05). CSF levels of CCL2 were significantly lower in active MS (144.7 +/- 14.4 pg/mL) than in controls (237.1 +/- 16.4 pg/mL, P < 0.01). There was no difference in the concentration of CCL2 and CXCL10 between patients with stable MS and controls. CCL5 was not detectable in the CSF of most patients or controls. The qualitative and quantitative differences of chemokines in CSF during relapses of MS suggest that they may be useful as a marker of disease activity and of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Article: Peripheral chemokine levels in women with recurrent major depression with suicidal ideation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, and Eotaxin/CCL11 between female patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, verifying if there is a difference in the levels of these mediators between those with or without current suicidal ideation. Thirty female outpatients with recurrent MDD were divided in two groups accordingly the presence or absence of suicidal ideation. These groups were compared with 16 healthy controls. Serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, and Eotaxin/CCL11 were determined. Depression severity was evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Suicidal ideation was assessed by SCID-I and BDI. Patients with recurrent MDD and healthy controls did not differ in age, socioeconomic status, and education. All patients reported high scores of BDI (mean, SD, n; 29.75, 10.55, 28). Multivariable analysis of covariance adjusted for age and BMI showed that MDD patients with suicidal ideation presented lower levels of MCP-1/ CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 (p < 0.001) and higher levels of Eotaxin/CCL11 (p = 0.04) compared to healthy controls. These differences remained significant after adjusting for depression severity. The findings of this study indicated that the presence of recurrent MDD with suicidal ideation is associated with differences in inflammatory chemokines when compared to those without suicidal ideation.Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 03/2012; 34(1):71-5. · 1.20 Impact Factor