The cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
ABSTRACT The demand for treatment for cannabis dependence has grown dramatically. The majority of the people who enter the treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence from cannabis. Understanding the impact of cannabis withdrawal syndrome on quit attempts is of obvious importance. Cannabis, however, has long been considered a 'soft' drug, and many continue to question whether one can truly become dependent on cannabis. Skepticism is typically focused on whether cannabis use can result in 'physiological' dependence or withdrawal, and whether withdrawal is of clinical importance.
The neurobiological basis for cannabis withdrawal has been established via discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system, identification of cannabinoid receptors, and demonstrations of precipitated withdrawal with cannabinoid receptor antagonists. Laboratory studies have established the reliability, validity, and time course of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome and have begun to explore the effect of various medications on such withdrawal. Reports from clinical samples indicate that the syndrome is common among treatment seekers.
A clinically important withdrawal syndrome associated with cannabis dependence has been established. Additional research must determine how cannabis withdrawal affects cessation attempts and the best way to treat its symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal substance in the United States and Europe. There is a dramatic increase in the demand for treatment for cannabis dependence. Cannabis users frequently have co-morbid mood symptoms, especially depression and anxiety, and regular cannabis users may self-medicate for such symptoms. Objectives: We report a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study, for the prevention of cannabis use in cannabis-dependent individuals. Method: Regular cannabis-dependent users (n¼52) were treated for 9 weeks with weekly cognitive-behavior and motivation-enhancement therapy sessions together with escitalopram 10 mg/day. Urine samples were collected to monitor delta- 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during treatment and questionnaires were administered to assess anxiety and depression. Results: We observed a high rate of dropout (50%) during the 9-week treatment program. Fifty-two patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Of these, ten (19%) remained abstinent after 9 weeks of treatment as indicated by negative urine samples for THC. Escitalopram provided no advantage over placebo in either abstinence rates from cannabis or anxiety and depression scores during the withdrawal and abstinent periods. Conclusions: Escitalopram treatment does not provide an additional benefit either for achieving abstinence, or for the treatment of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Due to limitations of our study, namely, a high dropout rate and effects of low abstinence rates on measures of anxiety, depression and withdrawal, it is premature to conclude that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not effective for treatment of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes Robin Room's contribution to cannabis policy debates over the period 1993-2010. It focuses on a controversy that erupted over a review that Room and the author undertook for the World Health Organization in the mid-1990s on the comparative harms of cannabis, alcohol, opiates and tobacco. It also briefly describes Room's recent work on global cannabis policy and ends with a brief appreciation of the character of his scholarly contributions to this field. [Hall W. Robin Room and cannabis policy: Dangerous comparisons. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014].Drug and Alcohol Review 11/2014; 33(6):612-6. DOI:10.1111/dar.12197 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rates of marijuana use among detained youths are exceptionally high. Research suggests a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is valid and clinically significant; however, these studies have mostly been conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings with treatment-seeking, White adults. The present study analyzed archival data to explore the magnitude of cannabis withdrawal symptoms within a diverse sample of detained adolescents while controlling for tobacco use and investigating the impact of race on symptom reports. Adolescents recruited from a juvenile correctional facility (N= 93) completed a background questionnaire and the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Analyses revealed a significant main effect for level of tobacco use on severity of irritability as well as for level of marijuana use on severity of craving to smoke marijuana and strange/wild dreams. Furthermore, a significant main effect for race was found with Black adolescents reporting lower withdrawal discomfort scores and experiencing less severe depressed mood, difficulty sleeping, nervousness/anxiety, and strange/wild dreams. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1067828X.2013.770379Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 01/2015; 24(2). DOI:10.1080/1067828X.2013.770379 · 0.62 Impact Factor