Pesticides associated with Wheeze among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 07/2006; 163(12):1129-37. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwj138
Source: PubMed


Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl.

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    • "ss , and even death ( Keifer and Firestone 2007 ) . The recent study by Binukumar et al . ( 2010 ) points to a possible effect of chronic exposure to dichlorvos by liver metabolic interruptions . Dichlorvos has demonstrated a slight association with diabetes ( Montgomery et al . 2008 ) and a more pronounced association with respiratory disorders ( Hoppin et al . 2006 ) among pesticide applicators . This pesticide also demonstrated immunotoxic effects by repressing the immune activity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte , natural killer , and lymphokine - activated killer cells ( Li et al . 2005 ) . The mechanism of effect occurred through the significant decreases in releases of perforin , ganzyme A , and gra"
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