GLOBOX--a spatially differentiated multimedia fate and exposure model.
Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, Einsteinweg 2, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.Environmental Science and Pollution Research (Impact Factor: 2.76). 04/2006; 13(2):143. DOI: 10.1065/lca2006.02.006
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ABSTRACT: The intake fraction (iF) is the fraction of an emitted mass of chemical that is ultimately taken in by an entire population, and it is used as an indicator of human health potential impacts related to environmental chemical persistence and bioaccumulation in the food chain. In chemical screening applications, the iF can be predicted using multimedia and multipathway fate and exposure models. One of the sources of iF uncertainty is the natural seasonal variability of the input parameters used in the models, i.e., the physicochemical properties of the pollutant and the landscape and exposure parameters. The objective of this article is to determine the relevance of including seasonal differentiation when assessing iFs in life cycle assessment. This was done by calculating and comparing seasonal iFs with each other and with iFs at 25° C, for both Canadian and global contexts. Two Canadian seasonal models based on the IMPACT 2002 predictive tool, and 2 models for the global context based on the USEtox consensus model were developed to calculate summer and winter iFs. Emissions into air and water and a set of 35 representative organic chemicals were considered. Partition coefficients for seasonal conditions were calculated using an integration of the van't Hoff equation. First-order degradation rate constants were calculated assuming that the rate constant doubles with each 10° C increase in temperature. For Canadian air emissions, results indicated that iFs for winter emissions could be up to 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than summer iFs or iFs calculated at 25° C. For Canadian water emissions, results showed that iFs for both summer and winter conditions were, in general, closer to each other with outliers within 1 order of magnitude to iFs calculated at 25° C. Results also indicated that seasonal variability was of lesser importance when assessing iFs within a global context. Because the ranking between chemicals was maintained, it can be concluded that seasonal variability is not relevant within a comparative context. However, this difference might be significant when comparing the magnitude of human toxicity impacts versus other impact categories contributing to human health damages. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2012; 8: 749-759. © 2012 SETAC.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 10/2012; 8(4):749-59. DOI:10.1002/ieam.1308
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ABSTRACT: In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) provides emission data to the various environmental compartments and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) determines the final distribution, fate and effects. Due to the overlap between the Technosphere (anthropogenic system) and Ecosphere (environment) in agricultural case studies, it is, however, complicated to establish what LCI needs to capture and where LCIA takes over. This paper aims to provide guidance and improvements of LCI/LCIA boundary definitions, in the dimensions of space and time. For this, a literature review was conducted to provide a clear overview of available methods and models for both LCI and LCIA regarding toxicological assessments of pesticides used in crop production. Guidelines are provided to overcome the gaps between LCI and LCIA modeling, and prevent the overlaps in their respective operational spheres. The proposed framework provides a starting point for LCA practitioners to gather the right data and use the proper models to include all relevant emission and exposure routes where possible. It is also able to predict a clear distinction between efficient and inefficient management practices (e.g. using different application rates, washing and rinsing management, etc.). By applying this framework for toxicological assessments of pesticides, LCI and LCIA can be directly linked, removing any overlaps or gaps in between the two distinct LCA steps.Chemosphere 12/2013; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.037 · 3.50 Impact Factor
Biophysical Journal 02/2011; 100(3):187a. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.12.1237 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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