Article

A 12-year follow-up of a treated cocaine-dependent sample.

Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.14). 05/2006; 30(3):219-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2005.12.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The study examined long-term outcomes (mortality, substance use, mental health, employment, criminal involvement) among a cocaine-dependent sample. This 12-year follow-up study, conducted in 2002-2003, updates information obtained at intake and two face-to-face interviews conducted in 1990-1991 and 1991-1992 among 321 male cocaine-dependent veterans admitted to drug treatment in 1988-1989. At the 2002-2003 follow-up, 28 had died and 266 were interviewed. A mixed model examining the longitudinal relationships demonstrated that treatment was associated with lower levels of cocaine use over the 12-year follow-up period after entry into the index treatment and more stable recovery (i.e., continuously abstinent from cocaine for at least 5 years). Few measures at intake predicted stable recovery at follow-up: only being White (vs. being African American) and having greater confidence in ability to avoid cocaine use in high-risk situations. Individuals achieving stable recovery reported less psychiatric symptoms, criminal involvement, and unemployment during the year prior to the interview. Adverse outcomes were apparent for a significant number of cocaine-dependent users who continued to use cocaine for a long period.

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