Article

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Cognitive Impairment

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States
The American Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 05/2006; 97(8):1262-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.12.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

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    • "The A1166C polymorphism of AGTR1 has been reported to be associated with increased risks of hypertension [1], myocardial infarction [2], and cerebral infarction [3]. There have been no prospective cohort studies in Japanese subjects regarding the association between the polymorphism of the A1166C of AGTR1 and cardiovascular events. "
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    • "The strengths of this study include the following: (a) novelty: this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study to explore the association between several metabolic and hormonal parameters and mental performance in two experimental conditions—fasting and after breakfast intake; (b) the specific age range: young children have a different brain metabolism than adults or adolescents, which deserves specific investigation; (c) absence of morbidity associated with obesity, such as hypertension, diabetes and dislipidemia , which also affect the brain function (Nash and Fillit, 2006). "
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    • "This is not necessarily justifiable as several conditions like hypertension , atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking have been associated with cognitive decline in the elderly (Duron and Hanon 2008). Furthermore, some medications have been associated with drug-induced cognitive disorders (Gray et al. 1999) and some others used for the treatment of classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) have a favorable effect on risk factor associated cognitive decline (Haag et al. 2009a; Haag et al. 2009b; Nash and Fillit 2006; Shah et al. 2009). Our intention was to evaluate whether age and cardiovascular risk factors impair comprehension of complex instructions and their practical implementation. "
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