A unique mechanism for the processive movement of single-headed myosin-IX.
ABSTRACT It has been puzzled that in spite of its single-headed structure, myosin-IX shows the typical character of processive motor in multi-molecule in vitro motility assay, because this cannot be explained by hand-over-hand mechanism of the two-headed processive myosins. Here, we show direct evidence of the processive movement of myosin-IX using two different single molecule techniques. Using optical trap nanometry, we found that myosin-IX takes several large ( approximately 20nm) steps before detaching from an actin filament. Furthermore, we directly visualized the single myosin-IX molecules moving on actin filaments for several hundred nanometers without dissociating from actin filament. Since myosin-IX processively moves without anchoring the neck domain, the result suggests that the neck tilting is not involved for the processive movement of myosin-IX. We propose that the myosin-IX head moves processively along an actin filament like an inchworm via a unique long and positively charged insertion in the loop 2 region of the head.
Conference Paper: Localization of single biological molecules out of the focal plane[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since the behaviour of proteins and biological molecules is tightly related to the cell's environment, more and more microscopy techniques are moving from in vitro to in living cells experiments. Looking at both diffusion and active transportation processes inside a cell requires three-dimensional localization over a few microns range, high SNR images and high temporal resolution (ms order of magnitude). We developed an apparatus that combines different microscopy techniques to satisfy all the technical requirements for 3D tracking of single fluorescent molecules inside living cells with nanometer accuracy. To account for the optical sectioning of thick samples we built up a HILO (Highly Inclined and Laminated Optical sheet) microscopy system through which we can excite the sample in a widefield (WF) configuration by a thin sheet of light that can follow the molecule up and down along the z axis spanning the entire thickness of the cell with a SNR much higher than traditional WF microscopy. Since protein dynamics inside a cell involve all three dimensions, we included a method to measure the x, y, and z coordinates with nanometer accuracy, exploiting the properties of the point-spread-function of out-of-focus quantum dots bound to the protein of interest. Finally, a feedback system stabilizes the microscope from thermal drifts, assuring accurate localization during the entire duration of the experiment.SPIE; 02/2014
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ABSTRACT: The presence of actin-binding protein, tropomyosin, shaped as particles or protein complexes that have no bonds with actin structures were found while the analisys of structural rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton. However, their functioning is still unknown. To study the composition and properties of these protein complexes a novel method of their separation from the cells without destroying the structures of the cytoskeleton have been developed. The protein composition of isolated tropomyosin particles has been analised by gel filtration, electrophoresis and Western blotting. They appeared to be a multimolecular complexes of about 700 kDa. Beside the tropomyosin and actin these complexes also contain the Hsp70, Hsp90 and myosin-9 identified by mass spectrometry analisys. Also, under inhibition of deacetylases by trichostatin A, changes in the number of particles and redistribution of tropomyosin between cytosol and cytoskeleton take place along with actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The results obtained give a reason to assume that these multimolecular complexes may participate in the process of reorganization of the actin microfilaments.Tsitologiia 04/2012; 54(1):33-43. DOI:10.1134/S1990519X12020046
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ABSTRACT: Although class IX myosins are single-headed, they demonstrate characteristics of processive movement along actin filaments. Double-headed myosins that move processively along actin filaments achieve this by successive binding of the two heads in a hand-over-hand mechanism. This mechanism, obviously, cannot operate in single-headed myosins. However, it has been proposed that a long class IX specific insertion in the myosin head domain at loop2 acts as an F-actin tether, allowing for single-headed processive movement. Here, we tested this proposal directly by analysing the movement of deletion constructs of the class IX myosin from Caenorhabditis elegans (Myo IX). Deletion of the large basic loop2 insertion led to a loss of processive behaviour, while deletion of the N-terminal head extension, a second unique domain of class IX myosins, did not influence the motility of Myo IX. The processive behaviour of Myo IX is also abolished with increasing salt concentrations. These observations directly demonstrate that the insertion located in loop2 acts as an electrostatic actin tether during movement of Myo IX along the actin track.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84874. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084874 · 3.53 Impact Factor